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Table 1 SUVs for the upper extremity skeletal muscles between the pitcher and control groups

From: Skeletal muscle metabolism on whole-body positron emission tomography during pitching

Muscles Throwing side Non-throwing side
SUV value Confidence interval Effect size P- value SUV value Confidence interval Effect size P- value
Pitching Control Pitching Control
Superior part of trapezius 0.70 ± 0.14 0.58 ± 0.08 [0.02, 0.24] 1.09 0.026a 0.64 ± 0.06 0.57 ± 0.09 [−0.01, 0.14] 0.85 0.074
Horizontal part of trapezius 0.74 ± 0.09 0.65 ± 0.08 [0.01, 0.17] 1.11 0.024a 0.74 ± 0.14 0.67 ± 0.08 [−0.03, 0.18] 0.67 0.153
Inferior part of trapezius 0.70 ± 0.07 0.73 ± 0.08 [−0.09, 0.05] 0.33 0.468 0.74 ± 0.13 0.69 ± 0.07 [−0.05, 0.15] 0.45 0.325
Levator scapulae 0.71 ± 0.18 0.58 ± 0.10 [−0.01, 0.27] 0.88 0.07 0.71 ± 0.15 0.58 ± 0.13 [0.00, 0.26] 0.94 0.049a
Rhomboids 0.65 ± 0.08 0.68 ± 0.11 [−0.11, 0.06] 0.27 0.554 0.67 ± 0.13 0.76 ± 0.09 [−0.19, 0.02] 0.76 0.106
Serratus anterior 0.76 ± 0.07 0.71 ± 0.08 [−0.06, 0.16] 0.46 0.316 0.74 ± 0.11 0.68 ± 0.10 [−0.04, 0.15] 0.56 0.23
Pectoralis minor 0.72 ± 0.09 0.62 ± 0.12 [−0.01, 0.19] 0.89 0.062 0.70 ± 0.14 0.68 ± 0.10 [−0.09, 0.14] 0.21 0.649
Subscapularis 0.76 ± 0.07 0.79 ± 0.08 [−0.10, 0.05] 0.32 0.481 0.80 ± 0.09 0.77 ± 0.09 [−0.06, 0.12] 0.3 0.509
Supraspinatus 0.75 ± 0.10 0.72 ± 0.14 [−0.08, 0.14] 0.25 0.579 0.76 ± 0.07 0.79 ± 0.09 [−0.10, 0.05] 0.33 0.465
Infraspinatus 0.81 ± 0.07 0.83 ± 0.09 [−0.10, 0.06] 0.22 0.626 0.86 ± 0.11 0.80 ± 0.11 [−0.04, 0.17] 0.56 0.227
Teres minor 0.88 ± 0.10 0.88 ± 0.19 [−0.14, 0.15] 0.05 0.906 0.88 ± 0.10 0.85 ± 0.14 [−0.09, 0.15] 0.25 0.589
Teres major 0.85 ± 0.22 0.63 ± 0.14 [0.04, 0.39] 1.17 0.017a 0.93 ± 0.49 0.65 ± 0.16 [−0.08, 0.64] 0.77 0.113
Anterior part of deltoid 0.60 ± 0.20 0.62 ± 0.12 [−0.18, 0.13] 0.14 0.758 0.68 ± 0.37 0.60 ± 0.10 [−0.18, 0.34] 0.3 0.515
Middle part of deltoid 0.66 ± 0.16 0.64 ± 0.11 [−0.11, 0.15] 0.12 0.787 0.66 ± 0.13 0.64 ± 0.09 [−0.09, 0.13] 0.18 0.69
Posterior part of deltoid 0.77 ± 0.10 0.65 ± 0.06 [0.04, 0.20] 1.46 0.017a 0.78 ± 0.11 0.63 ± 0.10 [0.06, 0.25] 1.49 0.004a
Latissimus dorsi 0.76 ± 0.29 0.55 ± 0.09 [0.01, 0.43] 1.02 0.045a 0.90 ± 0.49 0.57 ± 0.09 [−0.02, 0.68] 0.94 0.064
Pectoralis major 0.71 ± 0.22 0.56 ± 0.12 [−0.01, 0.32] 0.87 0.067 0.68 ± 0.37 0.58 ± 0.11 [−0.05, 0.26] 0.64 0.168
Coracobrachialis 0.97 ± 0.13 0.90 ± 0.12 [−0.05, 0.19] 0.56 0.229 0.66 ± 0.13 0.88 ± 0.14 [−0.15, 0.11] 0.13 0.769
Biceps 0.85 ± 0.33 0.57 ± 0.11 [0.05, 0.51] 1.13 0.021a 1.00 ± 0.36 0.59 ± 0.12 [0.15, 0.68] 1.54 0.006a
Brachialis 0.90 ± 0.23 0.67 ± 0.16 [0.04, 0.42] 1.16 0.019a 0.95 ± 0.31 0.63 ± 0.14 [0.09, 0.55] 1.32 0.011a
Triceps 0.74 ± 0.36 0.55 ± 0.10 [−0.07, 0.45] 0.72 0.137 0.60 ± 0.31 0.54 ± 0.12 [−0.15, 0.29] 0.29 0.519
Anconeus 0.77 ± 0.17 0.78 ± 0.14 [− 0.15, 0.14] 0.04 0.923 0.84 ± 0.21 0.74 ± 0.18 [−0.08, 0.29] 0.53 0.25
Pronator teres 0.77 ± 0.26 0.71 ± 0.19 [−0.15, 0.27] 0.26 0.562 0.82 ± 0.36 0.76 ± 0.18 [−0.20, 0.33] 0.22 0.631
Forearm flexors 0.96 ± 0.40 0.76 ± 0.08 [−0.08, 0.49] 0.71 0.144 1.04 ± 0.32 0.73 ± 0.10 [0.07, 0.54] 1.29 0.015a
Pronator quadratus 0.87 ± 0.53 0.72 ± 0.19 [−0.25, 0.53] 0.36 0.432 0.72 ± 0.16 0.72 ± 0.19 [−0.16, 0.17] 0.02 0.971
Brachioradialis 0.87 ± 0.30 0.64 ± 0.13 [0.01, 0.44] 1.00 0.038a 0.71 ± 0.28 0.54 ± 0.09 [−0.04, 0.37] 0.8 0.102
Extensor digitorum 1.67 ± 0.49 0.81 ± 0.15 [0.35, 1.09] 1.90 0.001a 1.96 ± 0.64 0.88 ± 0.17 [0.64, 1.51] 2.31 0.000a
Abductor hallucis brevis 1.67 ± 0.71 0.88 ± 0.30 [0.26, 1.32] 1.45 0.007a 1.30 ± 0.57 0.77 ± 0.14 [0.11, 0.94] 1.27 0.017a
Adductor hallucis 2.10 ± 0.88 1.13 ± 0.27 [0.33, 1.62] 1.50 0.007a 1.51 ± 0.54 1.03 ± 0.24 [0.07, 0.88] 1.13 0.026a
Abductor digiti minimi pedis 1.06 ± 0.64 0.94 ± 0.23 [−0.32, 0.57] 0.26 0.569 0.97 ± 0.29 0.86 ± 0.20 [−0.13, 0.35] 0.44 0.341
Lumbricalis 1.64 ± 0.77 1.02 ± 0.41 [0.05, 1.21] 1.02 0.036a 1.36 ± 0.67 0.97 ± 0.21 [−0.08, 0.85] 0.78 0.097
  1. aStatistically significant
  2. SUV Standardized uptake value
  3. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation
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