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Table 3 Changes in body composition and endocrine markers between pre-post season

From: The effects of 14-week betaine supplementation on endocrine markers, body composition and anthropometrics in professional youth soccer players: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Variables Groups Pre-Season Mid- Season Post- Season Mean Pre-Post Season (95% CI) Pre-Post Season % Change Effect Size
M ± SD M ± SD M ± SD Lower Upper Cohens D
Body composition
 Body Fat % BG 8.7 ± 2.7 7.8 ± 2.4 7.8 ± 2.4 −13.1 −6.8 −10 −0.3 S
PG 9.2 ± 3.5 8.6 ± 3.2 8.4 ± 3.1 −9.5 −6.5 −8 −0.2 S
 Body Fat (kg) BG 5.1 ± 1.6 4.6 ± 1.4 4.7 ± 1.5 −12.1 −6.6 −9.3 −0.3 S
PG 6.2 ± 2.7 5.8 ± 2.6 5.7 ± 2.5 − 9 −5.2 −7.1 −0.2 T
 LBM (kg) BG 54.0 ± 4.6 54.0 ± 4.6 55.0 ± 4.9 0.4 3.1 1.7 0.2 S
PG 59.6 ± 5.4 59.9 ± 5.4 60.7 ± 5.1 0.9 2.8 1.8 0.2 S
 Sum of 7-SS (mm) BG 71.6 ± 17.9 65.9 ± 15.7 65.1 ± 15.1 −10.2 −7.4 −8.8 −0.4 S
PG 75.4 ± 23.7 71.5 ± 21.9 70.2 ± 21.1 −7.8 −5.1 −6.5 −0.2 S
Endocrine Markers
 IGF-1 (ng/mL) BG 401 ± 98.6 477.3 ± 79.4 496.2 ± 80.6 14.6 42.1 28.4 1.1 L
PG 326.8 ± 64.0 353.5 ± 68.4 366.4 ± 67.3 6.6 19.2 12.9 0.6 M
 GH (ng/mL) BG 1.3 ± 0.4 2.36 ± 0.9 4.5 ± 3.2 130 300.6 215.3 1.4 L
PG 1.3 ± 0.4 2.0 ± 0.7 2.8 ± 1.9 54.4 191 122.7 1.1 L
 Testosterone (ng/mL) BG 3.3 ± 1.4 5.4 ± 2.1 5.9 ± 1.9* 49.3 186 117.6 1.6 L
PG 3.6 ± 1.0 4.1 ± 0.6 2.9 ± 0.7# −30.7 0.8 −14.9 −0.8 L
 Cortisol (μg/dL) BG 15.1 ± 2.1 12.7 ± 2.4 11.8 ± 2.1 −28.7 − 13.5 −21.1 −1.6 L
PG 13.5 ± 1.8 16.0 ± 2.5 13.6 ± 3.5 −12.7 14.8 1.1 ≤0.001 T
 T/C BG 0.2 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.2* 72.8 127 199.79 1.8 L
PG 0.2 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 −29.3 17.8 −11.51 −0.6 M
  1. BG Betaine Group; PG Placebo Group; LBM Lean body mass; IGF-1 Insulin like growth factor-1; T/C testosterone to cortisol ratio; GH Growth hormone; Sum of 7-SS: sum 7 skinfolds of the site (i.e., chest, abdominal, thigh, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and midaxillary); P1 Pre-Season; P2 Mid- Season; P3 Post- Season; T Trivial; S Small; M Moderate; L Large
  2. Represents a statistically significant difference compared to P1-P2 (p < 0.05); #Represents a statistically significant difference compared to P2-P3 (p < 0.05); *Represents a statistically significant difference compared to P1-P3 (p < 0.05)