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Fig. 1 | Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition

Fig. 1

From: Effect of oral rehydration solution versus spring water intake during exercise in the heat on muscle cramp susceptibility of young men

Fig. 1

Study design and the time course of measurements taken in the study. Before downhill running (DHR), blood sample was taken to assess haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin and serum osmolality, and to measure serum sodium, potassium, magnesium and chloride concentrations, and threshold frequency (TF) of electrical train stimulation to induce muscle cramp was measured as an indicator of muscle cramp susceptibility. During DHR, heart rate were monitored continuously, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation were recorded every 5 min, and tympanic temperature, blood pressure and body mass were measured after the first 20 min followed by every 10 min during DHR. The participants ingested spring water or OS-1 (indicated by *) for the volume equivalent to the body mass loss by sweat for the first 20 min and every 10 min thereafter for the pre-determined exercise duration (40–60 min) after each body mass measure (approximately 1500 ml in total). Immediately after DHR, blood sample was taken for the analyses shown above, and TF was measured again. TF was measured at 30 and 65 min after DHR, and blood sample was taken immediately before the TF measures at 65 min post-DHR. Spring water or OS-1 was ingested at 40 min post-exercise (indicated by *) for the lost amount of body mass between immediately post- to 40 min post-exercise (approximately 200 ml)

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