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Table 3 Performance outcomes at baseline and after 8 weeks of supplementation, with corresponding p-values

From: The effect of citrus flavonoid extract supplementation on anaerobic capacity in moderately trained athletes: a randomized controlled trial

Variable Placebo (N = 31) CFE400 (N = 30) CFE500 (N = 31) Estimated difference [95% CI]1 Effect size1 P1 Estimated difference [95% CI]2 Effect size2 P2
Baseline 8 weeks Baseline 8 weeks¥ Baseline 8 weeks§
Weight (kg) 71.9 ± 11.5 72.6 ± 13 68.7 ± 11.7 67.6 ± 11.9 71.7 ± 9.8 73.1 ± 9.4 −0.26 [− 1.21, 0.69] − 0.02 0.591 − 0.39 [− 1.33, 0.66] −0.04 0.411
Average Power (W) 547 ± 141 528 ± 149 511 ± 134 508 ± 154 571 ± 149 564 ± 137 31.6 [8.33, 54.8] 0.22 0.008 8.43 [−14.7, 31.6] 0.06 0.471
5 s Peak Power (W) 726 ± 228 736 ± 255 675 ± 200 682 ± 216 762 ± 214 762 ± 228 29.4 [− 18.2, 77.1] 0.14 0.222 −11.5 [− 58.8, 35.9] −0.05 0.631
Time to peak (s) 1.57 ± 3.0 0.91 ± 0.7 2.37 ± 1.9 1.17 ± 1.8 1.28 ± 1.1 1.8 ± 4.8 −0.15 [− 2.16, 1.86] −0.07 0.882 1.07 [−0.92, 3.06] 0.49 0.290
Heart Rate Maximum (BPM) 171 ± 9 166 ± 14 173 ± 14 173 ± 18 173 ± 10 169.7 ± 13 2.30 [− 4.10, 8.69] 0.20 0.477 − 0.17 [− 6.58, 6,25] −0.01 0.958
  1. Values are presented as observed mean ± SD. Differences between the intervention groups and placebo group were compared with an unstructured linear mixed model with correction for baseline values. Estimated difference 1: Estimated difference in change scores from baseline between CFE400 and placebo obtained with the mixed model. Estimated difference 2: Estimated difference in change scores from baseline between CFE500 and placebo obtained with the mixed model. CI Conficence interval. Effect size1: effect size CFE400 vs. placebo. Effect size2: effect size CFE500 vs and placebo. P1: P-value between CFE400 and placebo, P2: P-value between CFE500 and placebo. CFE Citrus Flavonoid Extract. † Data from all 31 participants were included in the analysis, 28 participants actually completed the measurements after 8 weeks. ¥ Data from all 30 participants were included in the analysis, 25 participants actually completed the measurements after 8 weeks. § Data from all 31 participants were included in the analysis, 26 participants actually completed the measurements after 8 weeks.