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Table 2 Performance outcomes at baseline and after 4 weeks of supplementation, with corresponding p-values

From: The effect of citrus flavonoid extract supplementation on anaerobic capacity in moderately trained athletes: a randomized controlled trial

Variable Placebo (N = 31) CFE400 (N = 30) CFE500 (N = 31) Estimated difference [95% CI]1 Effect size1 P1 Estimate [95% CI]2 Effect size2 P2
Baseline 4 weeks Baseline 4 weeks¥ Baseline 4 weeks§
Weight (kg) 71.9 ± 11.5 70.9 ± 11.8 68.7 ± 11.7 67.5 ± 11.7 71.7 ± 9.8 72.6 ± 9.3 −0.01 [− 0.80, − 0.78] −0.001 0.984 −0.19 [− 0.98, 0.59] −0.02 0.621
Average Power (W) 547 ± 141 511 ± 140 511 ± 134 526 ± 150 571 ± 149 575 ± 148 38.2 [18.0, 58.3] 0.27 < 0.001 21.2 [0.91, 41.4] 0.15 0.041
5 s Peak Power (W) 726 ± 228 688 ± 216 675 ± 200 711 ± 211 762 ± 214 781 ± 227 53.6 [9.96, 97.2] 0.25 0.017 28.7 [− 15.2, 72.5] 0.13 0.197
Time to peak (s) 1.57 ± 3.0 1.48 ± 1.4 2.37 ± 1.9 1.19 ± 0.8 1.28 ± 1.1 0.98 ± 0.8 −1.08 [−2.21, 0.05] −0.50 0.060 −0.20 [− 1.32, 0.93] −0.09 0.730
Heart Rate Maximum (BPM) 171 ± 9 168 ± 11 173 ± 14 175 ± 13 173 ± 10 171 ± 11 3.82 [− 1.08, 8.71] 0.34 0.124 0.06 [−4.75, 4.87] 0.01 0.980
  1. Values are presented as observed mean ± SD. Differences between the intervention groups and placebo group were compared with an unstructured linear mixed model with correction for baseline values. Estimated difference 1: Estimated difference in change scores from baseline between CFE400 and placebo obtained with the mixed model. Estimated difference 2: Estimated difference in change scores from baseline between CFE500 and placebo obtained with the mixed model. CI Confidence interval. Effect size1: effect size CFE400 vs. placebo. Effect size2: effect size CFE500 vs and placebo. P1: P-value between CFE400 and placebo. P2: P-value between CFE500 and placebo. CFE Citrus Flavonoid Extract. † Data from all 31 participants were included in the analysis, 28 participants actually completed the measurements after 4 weeks. ¥ Data from all 30 participants were included in the analysis, 26 participants actually completed the measurements after 4 weeks. § Data from all 31 participants were included in the analysis, 25 participants actually completed the measurements after 4 weeks