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Table 6 Investigations examining the effects of caffeine nasal sprays on exercise and cognitive performance

From: International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and exercise performance

Author Participants Protocol Results
De Pauw et al. 2017 [79] Healthy males (n = 10) Nasal spray 15 mg/mL caffeine
• Nasal spray 80 mg/mL glucose
• Placebo nasal spray
*↑ activity of cingulate, insular, and sensory-motor cortices
⬌ stroop task performance
De Pauw et al. 2017 [80] Moderately trained males (n = 11) • Nasal spray 15 mg/mL caffeine
• Nasal spray 80 mg/mL glucose
• Placebo nasal spray
⬌ plasma caffeine levels
⬌ wingate performance
⬌ 30 min cycling TT performance
⬌ stroop task performance
Laizure et al. 2017 [81] Healthy adults (n = 17) • Inspired powder 100 mg/mL caffeine (AeroShot)
• Oral solution 100 mg/248 mL caffeine
⬌ peak plasma caffeine levels
⬌ bioavailability
  1. mg/mL = milligram per milliliter, TT = time trial, * = significant difference, ⬌ = no improvement/change, ↑ = increased, ↓ = decreased, min = minute