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Table 5 Investigations examining the effects of caffeine mouth rinsing (CMR) on exercise performance

From: International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and exercise performance

Author Participants Protocol Results
Doering et al. 2014 [69] Well-trained cyclists (n = 10) 10 s rinse 35 mg caffeine/25 mL X 8
• Placebo rinse
⬌ plasma caffeine levels
⬌ cycling TT Performance
De Pauw et al. 2015 [70] Healthy males (n = 10) 20 s- 25 mL Rinse 1.2% caffeine
• 20 s- 25 mL Rinse 6.4% CHO
• Placebo Rinse
*↑ stroop task performance
Pomportes et al. 2017 [71] Physically active males (n = 16) and females (n = 6) 20 s- 25 mL rinse 67 mg caffeine
20 s- 25 mL rinse 7.0% CHO
20 s- 25 mL rinse 0.4 g guarana
• Placebo rinse
⬌ variability or production durations
⬌ errors made
Beaven et al. 2013 [72] Recreationally active males (n = 12) 5 s- 25 mL rinse 1.2% caffeine
• 5 s- 25 mL rinse 6% CHO
• Placebo rinse
*↑ mean power in first sprint for caffeine and CHO rinses
NS ↑ maximal power in first two sprints
Beaven et al. 2013 [72] Recreationally active males (n = 12) • 5 s- 25 mL rinse 1.2% caffeine
• 5 s- 25 mL rinse 6.0% CHO
5 s- 25 mL rinse 1.2% caffeine
+ 6.0% CHO
*↑ peak power in first sprint
*↑ mean power in fifth sprint
Kizzi et al. 2016 [73] Glycogen depleted, recreationally active males (n = 8) 10 s- 25 mL rinse 2.0% caffeine
• Placebo rinse
⬌ mean and peak power in 4th and 5th sprint
Sinclair and Bottoms 2014 [74] Healthy males (n = 12) 5 s- 25 mL rinse 0.032% caffeine
5 s- 25 mL rinse 6.4% CHO
• Placebo rinse
*↑ arm crank TT performance
Bottoms et al. 2014 [74] Healthy males (n = 12) 5 s- 125 mL rinse w/ 32 mg of caffeine
• 5 s – 6.4% CHO solution
• Placebo rinse
*↑ distance cycled during the caffeine mouth rinse trial (16.2 ± 2.8 km) was significantly greater compared to placebo trial (14.9 ± 2.6 km).
There was no difference between CHO and caffeine trials
Pataky et al. 2016 [75] Recreationally trained male (n = 25) and female (n = 13) cyclists Placebo rinse + 6 mg/kg caffeine capsule
• 25 mL rinse 300 mg caffeine + placebo capsule
25 mL rinse 300 mg caffeine + 6 mg/kg caffeine capsule
*↑ 3 km cycling TT performance
Lesniak et al. 2016 [76] Recreationally active females (n = 7) • 5 s- 25 mL rinse 1.2% caffeine
• 5 s- 25 mL rinse 6.0% CHO
• 5 s- 25 mL rinse 1.2% caffeine
+ 6% CHO
⬌ cycling TT performance
Dolan et al. 2017 [77] College lacrosse players (n = 10) • 5 s- 25 mL Rinse 1.2% caffeine
• 5 s- 25 mL Rinse 6.0% CHO
• 5 s- 25 mL Rinse 1.2% caffeine
+ 6.0% CHO
• Placebo rinse
• No rinse
⬌ intermittent sport performance
Clarke et al. 2015 [78] Recreationally resistance-trained males (n = 15) • 5 s- 25 mL rinse 1.2% caffeine
• 5 s- 25 mL rinse 6.0% CHO
• 5 s- 25 mL rinse 1.2% caffeine
+ 6.0% CHO
• Placebo rinse
⬌ total weight lifted
  1. Bold text associated with reported trial outcomes; s = seconds, mL = milliliters, CHO = carbohydrate, TT time trial, * = significant difference, NS = non-significant difference, ↑ = improved performance, ↓ = decreased, ⬌ = no improvement/change, mg = milligrams