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Table 3 Summary of studies that explored the effects of caffeine on exercise performance at altitude

From: International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and exercise performance

Author Participants Protocol Outcome
Berglund et al. 1982 [370] Well-trained cross-country skiers (n = 14) 6 mg/kg caffeine
• Placebo
*↑ 21 km TT 2900 m above sea level
Fulco et al. 1994 [371] Young adult cyclists (n = 8) 4 mg/kg caffeine
• Placebo
*↑ Time to exhaustion at 80% of their altitude-specific VO2max at 4300 m above sea level
Stadheim et al. 2015 [211] Male sub-elite cross-country skiers (n = 13) 4.5 mg/kg caffeine
• Placebo
*↑ Double-poling time to task failure at 2000 m above sea level
Smirmaul et al. 2017 [372] Adult male volunteers (n = 7) 4.0 mg/kg caffeine
• Placebo
*↑ Time to exhaustion during cycling by 12%
  1. Outcomes are bold caffeine group specific; * = significant difference, ↑ = improved performance, TT = time trial, m = meters, mg/kg = milligram per kilogram