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Table 6 Changes in stimulated cytokine production during exercise and recovery following caffeine supplementation

From: Caffeine supplementation induces higher IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels in response to a treadmill exercise test

  Pre-exercise Post-exercise Recovery Main effect p-values
(T; C; TxC)
IL-10 (pg·103 monocytes− 1)
 Placebo 1.11 ± 0.59 1.28 ± 0.66 1.36 ± 0.88 0.493; 0.644; 0.067
 Caffeine 1.30 ± 0.79 1.43 ± 0.87 1.16 ± 0.67
IL-6 (pg·103 monocytes− 1)
 Placebo 242 ± 164 304 ± 224 310 ± 275 0.148; 0.744; 0.991
 Caffeine 251 ± 152 312 ± 227 323 ± 251
TNF-α (pg·103 monocytes− 1)
 Placebo 13.1 ± 6.4 13.3 ± 6.2 13.7 ± 10.8 0.493; 0.255; 0.217
 Caffeine 14.5 ± 7.0 10.8 ± 5.8 11.1 ± 6.1
IL-1ra (pg·106 monocytes− 1)
 Placebo 16.9 ± 12.8 21.7 ± 12.2 41.7 ± 32.4 0.002 a,b; 0.458; 0.794
 Caffeine 19.7 ± 9.4 24.2 ± 10.8 42.6 ± 28.4
IL-8 (pg·103 monocytes− 1)
 Placebo 17.6 ± 6.5 22.4 ± 11.6 20.1 ± 12.3 0.343; 0.312; 0.522
 Caffeine 19.3 ± 7.3 20.3 ± 10.3 14.5 ± 8.9
  1. The values are the mean ± S.D. (n = 13)
  2. T time (pre-exercise, post-exercise, recovery), C condition (placebo, caffeine), TxC interaction time x condition. Main effect for time
  3. aindicates significant differences recovery vs. pre-exercise
  4. bindicates significant differences recovery vs. post-exercise