Skip to main content

Table 2 Prevalence of each component use by gender, age, and discipline

From: Use of nutritional supplements by elite Japanese track and field athletes

  Any NS Protein Carbohydrate Vitamins Minerals Amino acids Creatine Caffeine Fish oil Ubiquinone Herbal Others
Total 63.9% (367) 17.8% (102) 5.9% (34) 48.3% (277) 22.8% (131) 49.3% (283) 9.2% (53) 1.2% (7) 5.1% (29) 3.5% (20) 5.7% (33) 16.2% (93)
Gender
 Male 59.6% (187)* 20.7% (65)* 4.1% (13) 43.3% (133)* 19.7% (62) 43.3% (136)* 12.1% (38)* 1.6% (5) 4.1% (13) 2.2% (7) 4.8% (15) 13.7% (43)
 Female 69.2% (180) 14.2% (37) 8.1% (21) 55.4% (144) 26.5% (69) 56.5% (147) 5.8% (15) 0.8% (2) 6.2% (16) 5.0% (13) 6.9% (18) 19.2% (50)
p-value 0.018 0.048 n.s. 0.002 n.s. 0.002 0.009 n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s.
Ages
 Junior 58.9% (161)† 14.9% (41) 6.2% (17) 42.2% (116)† 16.4% (45)† 44.7% (123)† 5.8% (16)† 0.7% (2) 1.5% (4)† 2.5% (7) 4.0% (11) 11.6% (32)†
 Senior 68.9% (206) 20.4% (61) 5.7% (17) 53.8% (161) 28.8% (86) 53.5% (160) 12.4% (37) 1.7% (5) 8.4% (25) 4.3% (13) 7.4% (22) 20.4% (61)
p-value 0.012 n.s. n.s. 0.006 < 0.001 0.037 0.009 n.s. < 0.001 n.s. n.s. n.s.
Discipline
 Sprinting 57.7% (56) 16.4% (16) 3.1% (3) 38.1% (37)§ 10.3% (10)§ 42.3% (41) 21.6% (21)‡ 2.1% (2) 0% (0)§ 0% (0)§ 2.1% (2) 11.3% (11)
 Middle-distance 71.7% (33) 10.9% (5) 6.5% (3) 54.3% (25) 21.7% (10) 58.7% (27) 0% (0)§ 4.3% (2) 4.3% (2) 4.3% (2) 6.5% (3) 15.2% (7)
 Long-distance 75.8% (166)‡ 15.5% (34) 6.8% (15) 60.3% (132)‡ 38.4% (84)‡ 58.9% (129)‡ 0.9% (2)§ 0.5% (1) 11.0% (24)‡ 7.3% (15)‡ 11.4% (25)‡ 25.1% (55)‡
 Hurdle 57.4% (27) 17.0% (8) 8.5% (4) 44.7% (21) 10.6% (5)§ 38.3% (18) 12.8% (6) 2.0% (1) 6.4% (3) 2.1% (1) 2.1% (1) 12.8% (6)
 Jumping 52.3% (45)§ 16.3% (14) 5.8% (5) 47.7% (41) 18.6% (16) 43.0% (37) 5.8% (5) 1.2% (1) 0% (0)§ 1.2% (1) 1.2% (1)§ 10.5% (9)
 Throwing 49.2% (32)§ 35.4% (23)‡ 6.1% (4) 21.5% (14)§ 7.7% (5)§ 36.9% (24)§ 26.2% (17)‡ 0% (0) 0% (0)§ 1.5% (1) 0% (0)§ 4.6% (3)§
 Combined events 44.4% (8) 14.3% (2) 0% (0) 50.0% (7) 7.1% (1) 50.0% (7) 14.3% (2) 0% (0) 0% (0) 0% (0) 7.1% (1) 14.3% (2)
p-value < 0.001 0.012 n.s. < 0.001 < 0.001 0.004 < 0.001 n.s. < 0.001 0.031 0.001 0.001
  1. NS Nutritional supplement; n.s. Not significant
  2. The chi-square test was used to assess differences in the prevalence of each component use by gender, age, and discipline
  3. The chi-square test p-value is shown. *p < 0.05 vs. women, †p < 0.05 vs. seniors
  4. The specific significance determined by an adjusted residual analysis was expressed as ‡ (higher) or § (lower)
  5. The chi-square test p-value is shown