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Table 3 Intake and intake rate corrected for body mass

From: Analysis of food and fluid intake in elite ultra-endurance runners during a 24-h world championship

  Mean SD Minimum Maximum
Total fluid (ml.kg BM−1) 274 115 123 484
Total fluid (ml.h−1)a 685 290 385 1250
Total food (g.kg BM−1) 65 55 28 188
Total food (g.h− 1) 159 132 79 491
Energy (kJ.kg BM−1) 606 34 119 1278
Energy (kJ.h−1)a 1463 654 305 2284
Carbohydrate (g.kg BM− 1) 25.5 14.0 5.4 47.6
Carbohydrate (g.h−1)a 62.2 29.6 13.9 105.4
Fat (g.kg BM−1) 3.3 3.7 0.3 13.6
Fat (g.h−1) 7.7 7.0 0.9 24.3
Protein (g.kg BM−1) 3.2 2.8 0.5 7.8
Protein (g.h−1)a 8.0 7.1 1.2 21.7
Sodium (mg.kg BM−1)b 352 200 125 803
Sodium (mg.h−1)b 869 431 271 1542
Caffeine (mg.kg BM−1)c 5.04 3.77 1.01 10.9
Caffeine (mg.h−1)c 12.8 10.1 2.4 32.9
  1. aLatest benchmark recommendations for fluid, energy, carbohydrate, and protein intake [10]: 450–750 mL.h−1, 670–1670 kJ.h− 1, 30–50 g.h− 1, and 5–10 g.h− 1, respectively
  2. bIn similar studies, sodium intake was observed between 158 and 246 mg.kg BM− 1 and 493 and 671 mg.h− 1 [13, 14, 35]
  3. cAlthough there are no specific recommendations, it has been advised to repeat doses of 50 mg·h− 1 only during the night “when circadian rhythms are likely to be affected” [10]. BM = body mass