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Table 4 Symptoms experienced pre-racing by gender and athlete age group

From: Dietary restrictions in endurance runners to mitigate exercise-induced gastrointestinal symptoms

SymptomsYoung Males n(%)Masters Males n(%)Young Females n(%)Masters Females n(%)p-value
Stomach pain/cramps25 (48)35 (33)47 (57)50 (41).009
Intestinal pain/discomfort15 (29)18 (17)20 (24)34 (28).171
Side ache/stitch18 (35)14 (13)28 (34)20 (17)<.001
Urge to defecate9 (17)16 (15)21 (25)35 (29).055
Bloating13 (25)10 (9)25 (30)23 (19).002
Diarrhea5 (10)16 (15)18 (22)28 (23).114
Fullness/heaviness9 (18)12 (12)24 (31)17 (16).015
Burping/belching13 (25)8 (8)22 (27)15 (12).001
Gas5 (10)18 (17)22 (27)13 (11).016
Nausea/vomiting7 (14)7 (7)17 (21)10 (8).017
Reflux/heartburn6 (12)7 (7)8 (10)8 (7).580
Bleeding0 (0)0 (0)1 (1)0 (0).372
  1. Exercise-induced gastrointestinal symptoms experienced by runners while racing if they consume an offending food. Percentages represent the frequency of individuals from each category who report they would experience the symptom if they ate a food they would typically avoid. Differences between groups were determined by a Fisher’s exact test. Significant differences p < .05 are bolded