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Table 1 Frequently avoided foods pre-race by gender and athlete age group

From: Dietary restrictions in endurance runners to mitigate exercise-induced gastrointestinal symptoms

Foods AvoidedYoung Males n(%)Masters Males n(%)Young Females n(%)Masters Females n(%)p-value
Meat21 (42)28 (26)22 (28)40 (34).186
Milk products17 (35)22 (22)26 (45)25 (26).017
Fish/seafood18 (36)27 (26)24 (30)31 (27).557
Poultry15 (30)22 (21)17 (21)31 (26).519
High-fiber13 (25)24 (22)15 (18)32 (26).529
Chocolate17 (33)13 (12)23 (27)29 (24).009
Legumes14 (27)14 (13)10 (12)29 (25).025
Coffee or tea7 (14)13 (12)21 (25)23 (20).092
Energy drinks15 (30)10 (9)16 (20)16 (14).009
Starchy vegetable10 (19)15 (14)15 (18)16 (13).633
Lactose-free milk14 (27)10 (9)12 (15)14 (12).029
Eggs12 (23)10 (9)12 (15)14 (12).117
Soy milk13 (25)7 (7)10 (13)16 (13).016
Sports drink7 (14)11 (10)3 (4)16 (14).085
Vegetables8 (15)7 (7)7 (9)15 (13).284
Cold cereal5 (10)9 (8)9 (11)15 (13).749
Coconut milk12 (23)9 (8)7 (8)12 (10).050
Almond milk12 (23)7 (7)8 (10)11 (9).025
  1. Foods commonly avoided pre-racing by gender and classification as young or masters athlete. Individuals with a self-declared intolerance to a food category were removed from the analysis for that food. Percentages represent the frequency of individuals from each category who report avoiding the food. Differences between groups were determined by a Fisher’s exact test. Significant differences p < .05 are bolded