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Table 3 Results before and after the intervention by groups

From: Effects of a ketogenic diet on body composition and strength in trained women

 GroupBefore
(X ± SD)
After
(X ± SD)
a
(X ± SD [95% CI])
p-valuedTimeGroupTime x Group
Pp2)
BM (kg)KD61.9 + 9.859.7 + 10.1−2.2 ± 1.2 [−3.0, − 1.3]*0.005−0.20.08 (0.16)0.53 (0.02)< 0.01 (0.52)
NKD62.6 + 5.963.4 + 6.50.8 ± 1.8 [−0.4, 2.0]*0.1540.1
FM (kg)KD18.4 + 6.417.3 + 5.5−1.1 ± 1.5 [−2.2, −0.1]0.042−0.20.19 (0.09)0.74 (0.01)0.01 (0.30)
NKD18.3 + 4.318.7 + 4.50.3 ± 0.8 [−0.2, 0.9]0.2250.1
FFM (kg)KD42.8 + 5.442.1 + 6.1−0.7 ± 1.7 [−1.9, 0.5] *0.202− 0.10.94 (0.00)0.47 (0.03)0.04 (0.21)
NKD43.5 + 2.844.2 + 3.40.7 ± 1.1 [−0.1, 1.4]*0.0740.2
BP (kg)KD41.5 + 8.443.0 + 7.71.5 ± 4.6 [−1.8, 4.8]*0.3290.20.001 (0.47)0.91 (0.00)0.05 (0.19)
NKD39.8 + 7.144.6 + 7.44.8 ± 1.8 [3.6, 5.9]*< 0.010.7
Squat (kg)KD68.5 + 11.274.1 + 12.35.6 ± 7.6 [0.1, 11.0]*0.0450.5< 0.01 (0.74)0.84 (0.00)< 0.01 (0.39)
NKD64.5 + 11.380.1 + 10.815.6 ± 5.4 [11.7, 19.4]*0.0051.4
CMJ (cm)KD20.8 + 2.722.4 + 3.31.7 ± 1.9 [0.3, 3.1]0.0220.60.00 (0.56)0.48 (0.03)0.46 (0.03)
NKD22.0 + 4.224.2 + 4.92.2 ± 1.7 [1.1, 3.4]0.0010.5
  1. a, changes from baseline; CI confidence interval; P, significant difference between pretest vs postest; d, Cohen’s d; KD ketogenic diet group; NKD non-ketogenic diet group; FM fat mass; FFM fat-free mass; BP bench press; CMJ countermovement jump; * difference (P < 0.05) between KD and NKD group.