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Table 2 Mean ± SD RER and substrate oxidation (g min− 1·kg LBM− 1·10− 2) during the second hour of submaximal exercise (60–120 min)

From: Effects of supplementing with an 18% carbohydrate-hydrogel drink versus a placebo during whole-body exercise in −5 °C with elite cross-country ski athletes: a crossover study

 Females (n = 6)Males (n = 6)All (n = 12)Two-way ANOVA P value (pη2)
PLACHO-HGPLACHO-HGPLACHO-HGTimeTrialInteraction
RER0.83 ± 0.020.87 ± 0.02**0.85 ± 0.010.87 ± 0.01*0.84 ± 0.010.87 ± 0.010.831 (0.011)< 0.0001 (0.813)0.042 (0.217)
FAT95.4 ± 8.375.7 ± 7.2**90.0 ± 9.577.4 ± 5.5*92.6 ± 8.976.6 ± 6.20.749 (0.019)< 0.0001 (0.833)0.040 (0.220)
CHOtotal199.1 ± 33.0250.7 ± 30.8*231.4 ± 26.5262.4 ± 30.5*215.2 ± 31.2256.5 ± 29.90.875 (0.009)< 0.0001 (0.772)0.089 (0.177)
CHOexo128.3 ± 30.2122.1 ± 17.9125.2 ± 23.9< 0.0001 (0.792)
CHOendo199.1 ± 33.0122.4 ± 34.7**231.4 ± 26.5140.3 ± 33.0*215.2 ± 31.2131.4 ± 33.60.013 (0.347)< 0.0001 (0.909)0.013 (0.275)
  1. Significant *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.0001 main effect of trial (PLA vs. CHO-HG) for within-group comparisons (e.g., females and males, respectively); ANOVA analysis of variance, pη2 partial Eta-squared, PLA placebo, CHO-HG carbohydrate-hydrogel, RER respiratory exchange ratio, FAT fat oxidation, CHOtotal total carbohydrate oxidation, CHOendo endogenous carbohydrate oxidation, CHOexo exogenous carbohydrate oxidation. Significant P-value (< 0.05) is displayed in bold