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Table 3 Dietary restrictions, reasons for avoiding foods and gastrointestinal symptoms while training

From: Development of a questionnaire to assess dietary restrictions runners use to mitigate gastrointestinal symptoms

Variable % Observed Agreement Kappa 95% CI PABAK PI BI
Foods Avoided
 Gluten free grain/cereal 94.87 −.03 −.09–0.04 .90 .95 .00
 Legumes 94.87 .72 .36–1.00 .90 .79 .00
 Water 97.44 .00 .00–1.00 .95 .97 .03
Grains 87.18 .38 −.04–.80 .74 .77 .08
 Meat 82.05 .49 .17–.80 .64 .56 .13
Sports bar/gel 84.62 .17 −.25–.59 .69 .79 .05
Starchy vegetable 84.62 .16 −.26–.59 .69 .79 .00
 Poultry 89.74 .55 .18–.92 .79 .74 .10
 Sports drink 84.62 .44 .09–0.78 .69 .69 .15
 Cold breakfast cereal 94.87 .48 −.12–1.00 .90 .90 .05
 Fish/seafood 84.62 .48 .13–.83 .69 .64 .05
 Juice 84.62 .41 .02–.80 .69 .69 .00
 Hot cereal 89.74 .28 −.22–.79 .79 .85 .05
 Nuts 94.87 −.03 −.09–.04 .90 .95 .00
 Fruit/vegetable smoothie 94.87 .72 .37–1.00 .90 .79 .05
 Milk products 87.18 .69 .44–.94 .74 .41 .03
 Eggs 92.31 .54 .09–.98 .85 .82 .08
 Coffee or tea 82.05 .51 .20–.83 .64 .51 .03
 Lactose-free milk 94.87 .47 −.15–1.00 .90 .90 .00
 Fruit 94.87 .00 .00–1.00 .90 .95 .05
 Energy drink 82.05 .49 .17–.80 .64 .56 .13
 Almond milk 92.31 −.04 −.11–.04 .85 .92 .03
 Vegetables 94.87 .48 −.12–1.00 .90 .90 .05
 Chocolate 82.05 .42 .07–.78 .64 .62 .03
 Coconut milk 92.31 −.04 −.11–.04 .85 .92 .03
High fiber foods 84.62 .33 −.07–.72 .69 .74 .10
Soy milk 84.62 .17 −.25–.59 .69 .79 .05
 Don’t avoid foods 79.49 .56 .30–.82 .59 .28 .10
Reasons for Avoiding Foods
 Routine 89.74 .44 −.01–.90 .79 .79 .00
 Experience 87.18 .75 .55–.95 .74 .05 .13
 Personal preference 82.05 .60 .34–.87 .64 .31 .03
 Advice 97.44 .79 .38–1.00 .95 .87 .03
 Superstition 97.44 .00 .00–1.00 .95 .97 .03
Symptoms Experienced
 Stomach pain/cramps 84.62 .70 .48–.92 .69 .03 .10
 Diarrhea 92.31 .75 .49–1.00 .85 .62 .03
 Burping/belching 92.31 .53 .06–1.00 .85 .82 .03
 Nausea/vomiting 94.87 .64 .18–1.00 .90 .85 .00
Side ache/stitch 79.49 .37 .02–.72 .59 .59 .00
 Intestinal issues 84.62 .60 .31–.89 .69 .49 .05
 Urge to defecate 89.74 .72 .46–.97 .79 .54 .10
 Gas 84.62 .53 .20–.86 .69 .59 .00
 Reflux/heart burn 84.62 .53 .20–.86 .69 .59 .05
 Bloating 79.49 .54 .26–.82 .59 .33 .00
 Fullness/heaviness 79.49 .46 .15–.78 .59 .49 .05
 No symptoms 92.31 .68 .35–1.00 .85 .72 .03
  1. Kappa unadjusted kappa, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, PABAK prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa, PI prevalence index, BI bias index. Reliability for questions regarding pre-training was determined using a kappa statistic or PABAK. Symptoms bleeding had 100% agreement. Responses that did not meet the reliability criteria are bolded