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Table 3 Summary of moderator variables from the single and multiple meta-regression model for RER in response to hypoxic exposure during exercise matched for relative intensities

From: The effects of environmental hypoxia on substrate utilisation during exercise: a meta-analysis

Moderator variable
RER (relative) (n = 31)
p value Comparison Multiple regression p value
Pre-existing nutritional state < 0.01 Fasted (n = 8, MD − 0.07, 95% CI − 0.09 to − 0.06)
Fed (n = 18, MD 0.06, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.10)
< 0.01
Carbohydrate supplementation during exercise 0.22 Yes (n = 4, MD − 0.04, 95% CI − 0.09 to 0.01)
No (n = 27, MD 0.02, 95% -0.02 to 0.06)
N/A
Exercise mode 0.60 Cycling (n = 26, MD 0.02, 95% CI − 0.02 to 0.05)
Running (n = 5, MD − 0.01, 95% CI − 0.04 to 0.03)
N/A
Duration of hypoxic exposure 0.67 Acute (n = 22, MD 0.02, 95% CI − 0.03 to 0.06)
Chronic (n = 9, MD 0.00, 95% CI − 0.03 to 0.04)
N/A
Type of hypoxia 0.96 Simulated normobaric hypoxia (n = 7, MD 0.01, 95% CI − 0.01 to 0.03)
Simulated hypobaric hypoxia (n = 9, MD 0.00, 95% CI − 0.03 to 0.03)
Terrestrial altitude (n = 15, MD 0.02, 95% CI − 0.03 to 0.07)
N/A
Percentage male 0.43 Meta-regression percentage male vs. MD (slope 0.0006, 95% CI − 0.0009 to 0.0021) N/A
Exercise intensity 0.04 Meta-regression of exercise intensity vs. MD (slope 0.0033, 95% CI 0.0002 to 0.0065) 0.049
Exercise duration 0.78 Meta-regression of exercise duration vs. MD (slope − 0.0002, 95% CI − 0.0018 to 0.014) N/A
Altitude height 0.90 Meta-regression of altitude height vs. ES (slope − 0.00, 95% CI − 0.00 to 0.00) N/A