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Table 2 Studies investigating substrate utilisation during exercise matched for relative intensities in hypoxia compared with normoxia

From: The effects of environmental hypoxia on substrate utilisation during exercise: a meta-analysis

Study Participants Study design Type of hypoxia Altitude (m) Duration of exposure Absolute substrate use (g.min−1) Relative substrate use (%)
CHO oxidation Fat oxidation CHO oxidation Fat oxidation
Braun et al. (2000) [11] 15 (females) 30 min cycling at 65% relative VO2max TA 4300 10 days SL:1.95 ± 0.11
CH:1.22 ± 0.09
NM NM NM
Lundby and Van Hall (2002) A [22] 8 (male = 6, female = 2) 60 min cycling at 50% relative VO2max NH 4100 70 min SL: 2.00 ± 0.20
AH: 1.70 ± 0.10
SL: 0.30 ± 0.01
AH: 0.20 ± 0.02
SL: 73.90 ± 2.00
AH: 75.50 ± 1.90
SL: 26.10 ± 2.00
AH: 24.50 ± 1.90
Lundby and Van Hall (2002) B [22] 8 (male = 6, female = 2) 60 min cycling at 50% relative VO2max TA 4100 10 days SL: 2.00 ± 0.20
CH: 1.70 ± 0.02
SL: 0.30 ± 0.01
CH: 0.30 ± 0.02
SL: 73.90 ± 2.00
CH: 74.40 ± 1.50
SL: 26.10 ± 2.00
CH: 25.60 ± 1.50
Matu et al. (2017) A [6] 12 (males) 60 min walking at 50% relative VO2max NH 2150 5 h SL: 1.56 ± 0.35
AH: 1.18 ± 0.34
SL: 0.41 ± 0.18
AH: 0.44 ± 0.21
SL: 62.80 ± 13.30
AH: 55.10 ± 18.90
SL: 37.20 ± 13.30
AH: 44.90 ± 18.90
Matu et al. (2017) B [6] 12 (males) 60 min walking at 50% relative VO2max NH 4300 5 h SL: 1.56 ± 0.35
AH: 0.87 ± 0.37
SL: 0.41 ± 0.18
AH: 0.38 ± 0.19
SL: 62.80 ± 13.30
AH: 50.80 ± 19.80
SL: 37.20 ± 13.30
AH: 49.20 ± 19.80
Morishima et al. (2014) A [55] 8 (males) 30 min cycling at 60% relative VO2max NH 2700 7.5 h NM NM SL: 60.00 ± 7.80
AH: 93.70 ± 2.50
SL: 40.00 ± 7.80
AH: 6.30 ± 2.50
O’Hara et al. (2017) B [5] 7 (males) 105 min cycling at ~ 74% relative VO2max HH 3375 155 min SL: 2.64 ± 0.50
AH: 1.47 ± 0.62
SL: 0.38 ± 0.19
AH: 0.63 ± 0.25
SL: 73.10 ± 13.10
AH: 48.80 ± 18.90
SL: 26.90 ± 13.10
AH: 51.20 ± 18.90
Peronnet et al. (2006) [4] 5 (males) 80 min cycling at 77% relative VO2max HH 4300 110 min SL:3.25 ± 0.13
AH:2.67 ± 0.10
SL:0.37 ± 0.05
AH: 0.10 ± 0.03
SL:78.10 ± 1.80
AH: 92.00 ± 2.10
SL: 21.90 ± 1.80
AH: 8.00 ± 2.10
  1. Values presented as mean ± SD. HH hypobaric hypoxia, NH normobaric hypoxia, TA terrestrial altitude, SL sea level, AH acute hypoxia, CH chronic hypoxia, CHO carbohydrate, NM not measured. A and B refer to the different trial arms of each study