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Table 1 Studies investigating RER during exercise matched for relative intensities in hypoxia, compared with normoxia

From: The effects of environmental hypoxia on substrate utilisation during exercise: a meta-analysis

Study Participants Study design Type of hypoxia Altitude (m) Duration of hypoxia RER
Beidleman et al. (2002) [16] 8 (females) Treadmill exercise at 70% relative VO2max until volitional exhaustion HH 4300 180 min SL: 0.89 ± 0.04
AH: 0.85 ± 0.03
Beidleman et al. (2003) A [45] 6 (male = 5, female = 1) 15 min cycling at 40% relative VO2max HH 4300 70 min SL: 0.97 ± 0.02
AH: 0.88 ± 0.01
Beidleman et al. (2003) B [45] 6 (male = 5, female = 1) 15 min cycling at 70% relative VO2max HH 4300 70 min SL: 1.02 ± 0.02
AH: 1.00 ± 0.03
Bouissou et al. (1987) [46] 6 (males) 60 min cycling at 60% relative VO2max HH 3000 80 min SL: 0.99 ± 0.02
AH: 1.00 ± 0.01
Braun et al. (2000) [11] 15 (females) 30 min cycling at 65% relative VO2max TA 4300 10 days SL: 0.97 ± 0.01
CH: 0.94 ± 0.01
Friedmann et al. (2004) [47] 11 (males) 60 min running at ~ 82% relative VO2max NH 2500 120 min SL: 0.93 ± 0.02
AH: 0.98 ± 0.07
Fulco et al. (2005) A [48] 16 (males) 20 min cycling at 48% relative VO2max TA 4300 3 days SL: 0.91 ± 0.01
CH: 0.81 ± 0.01
Fulco et al. (2005) B [48] 16 (males) 20 min cycling at 48% relative VO2max TA 4300 10 days SL: 0.91 ± 0.01
CH: 0.80 ± 0.01
Fulco et al. (2005) C [48] 16 (males) 20 min cycling at 68% relative VO2max TA 4300 3 days SL: 0.93 ± 0.01
CH: 0.85 ± 0.01
Fulco et al. (2005) D [48] 16 (males) 20 min cycling at 68% relative VO2max TA 4300 10 days SL: 0.93 ± 0.01
CH: 0.84 ± 0.01
Hopkins et al. (2003) A [49] 6 (male = 1, female = 5) 5 min cycling at 30% relative VO2max NH 3850 25 min SL: 0.82 ± 0.02
AH: 0.86 ± 0.03
Hopkins et al. (2003) B [49] 6 (male = 1, female = 5) 5 min cycling at 60% relative VO2max NH 3850 25 min SL: 0.95 ± 0.02
AH: 0.96 ± 0.03
Katayama et al. (2010) [3] 7 (males) 30 min cycling at 50% relative VO2max HH 2000 100 min SL: 0.90 ± 0.01
AH: 0.91 ± 0.02
Lundby and Van Hall (2002) A [22] 8 (male = 6, female = 2) 60 min cycling at 50% relative VO2max NH 4100 70 min SL: 0.91 ± 0.01
AH: 0.92 ± 0.02
Lundby and Van Hall (2002) B [22] 8 (male = 6, female = 2) 60 min cycling at 50% relative VO2max TA 4100 28 days SL: 0.91 ± 0.01
CH: 0.91 ± 0.01
Maher et al. (1974) A [50] 8 (males) 10 min cycling at 75% relative VO2max TA 4300 44 h SL: 0.99 ± 0.01
AH: 0.98 ± 0.01
Maher et al. (1974) B [50] 8 (males) 10 min cycling at 75% relative VO2max TA 4300 12 days SL: 0.99 ± 0.01
CH: 0.98 ± 0.01
Matu et al. (2017) A [6] 12 (males) 60 min walking at 50% relative VO2max NH 2150 5 h SL: 0.88 ± 0.04
AH: 0.85 ± 0.06
Matu et al. (2017) B [6] 12 (males) 60 min walking at 50% relative VO2max NH 4300 5 h SL: 0.88 ± 0.04
AH: 0.85 ± 0.06
Messier et al. (2017) [51] 20 (males) 60 min cycling at ~ 67% relative VO2max TA 2150 150 min SL: 0.92 ± 0.06
AH: 0.97 ± 0.05
Noordhof et al. (2013) A [52] 16 (male) 6 min cycling at 45% relative VO2max HH 1500 30 min SL: 0.89 ± 0.03
AH: 0.92 ± 0.02
Noordhof et al. (2013) B [52] 16 (male) 6 min cycling at 55% relative VO2max HH 1500 30 min SL: 0.91 ± 0.04
AH: 0.94 ± 0.04
Noordhof et al. (2013) C [52] 16 (male) 6 min cycling at 65% relative VO2max HH 1500 30 min SL: 0.94 ± 0.04
AH: 0.98 ± 0.04
O’Hara et al. (2017) A [5] 7 (males) 5 min cycling at ~ 62% relative VO2max HH 3375 155 min SL: 0.92 ± 0.04
AH: 0.83 ± 0.04
O’Hara et al. (2017) B [5] 7 (males) 105 min cycling at ~ 74% relative VO2max HH 3375 155 min SL: 0.92 ± 0.03
AH: 0.84 ± 0.05
Peronnet et al. (2006) [4] 5 (males) 80 min cycling at 77% relative VO2max HH 4300 110 min SL: 0.93 ± 0.01
AH: 0.97 ± 0.01
Wyss et al. (1990) [53] 7 (males) 30 min running at ~ 79% relative VO2max NH 3500 60 min SL: 0.90 ± 0.04
AH: 0.93 ± 0.04
Young et al. (1987) A [54] 12 (males) 30 min cycling at 75% relative VO2max (active between exercise tests) TA 4300 <  24 h SL: 0.84 ± 0.02
AH: 1.03 ± 0.01
Young et al. (1987) B [54] 12 (males) 30 min cycling at 75% relative VO2max (active between exercise tests) TA 4300 13 days SL: 0.84 ± 0.02
CH: 1.03 ± 0.06
Young et al. (1987) C [54] 12 (males) 30 min cycling at 75% relative VO2max (sedentary between exercise tests) TA 4300 <  24 h SL: 0.84 ± 0.01
AH: 1.05 ± 0.01
Young et al. (1987) D [54] 12 (males) 30 min cycling at 75% relative VO2max (sedentary between exercise tests) TA 4300 13 days SL: 0.84 ± 0.01
CH: 1.13 ± 0.05
  1. Values presented as mean ± SD. HH hypobaric hypoxia, NH normobaric hypoxia, TA terrestrial altitude, SL sea level, AH acute hypoxia, CH chronic hypoxia. A, B, C and D refer to the different trial arms of each study