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Table 4 Mean ± SD from Likert scale data (1 = Not at all to 5 = extremely) on subjective feelings (n = 27)

From: Comparison of a sports-hydration drink containing high amylose starch with usual hydration practice in Australian rules footballers during intense summer training

  Control Mean ± SD Intervention Mean ± SD Estimated Δ1 Mean ± SE P-value for Δ1
1: Level of Thirst 2.9 ± 0.7 2.7 ± 0.7 −0.20 ± 0.16 0.21
2: Level of Bloating 2.0 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.2 0.83 ± 0.24 < 0.001
3: Sense of Refreshment 2.5 ± 0.9 2.5 ± 0.8 0.04 ± 0.16 0.83
4: Stomach discomfort 1.6 ± 0.8 2.5 ± 1.0 0.95 ± 0.17 < 0.001
5: Sense of fatigue 3.2 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 1.0 −0.08 ± 0.19 0.66
  1. 1The difference, Δ, for Intervention versus Control was obtained using a mixed effects model with arm and period as the fixed effects and subject as a random effect (see Methods)