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Table 1 Primer sequences of genes used for real-time polymerase chain reaction

From: Biotin and chromium histidinate improve glucose metabolism and proteins expression levels of IRS-1, PPAR-γ, and NF-κB in exercise-trained rats

Gene Primer Sequence
IRS-1 Forward 5′-GCGCAGGCACCATCTCAACAACC-3′
Reverse 5′-GCACGCACCCGGAAGGAACC-3′
PPAR-γ Forward 5′-TCAAACCCTTTACCACGGTT-3′
Reverse 5′-CAGGCTCTACTTTGATCGCA-3′
NF-κB Forward 5′-TGAGGCTGTTTGGTT TGAGA −3′
Reverse 5′-TTATGGCTGAGGTCTGGTCTG-3′
GAPDH Forward 5′-TGATGACATCAAGAAGGTGGTGAAG-3′
Reverse 5′TCCTTGGAGGCCATGTGGGCCAT-3′
  1. IRS-1 insulin receptor substrate-1, PPAR-γ peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma,
  2. NF-κB nuclear factor kappa B