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Table 2 Markers of muscle damage and stress at Day 1 and Day 14

From: Efficacy of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis JCM 5805 on immunity and fatigue during consecutive high intensity exercise in male athletes: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial

  Day 1 Day 14 Comparison between day 14 and day 1 Comparison between groups at day 14
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD p valuea (Effect sizec) p valueb (Effect sizec)
CPK (Unit/L) Placebo 240 ± 88 344 ± 180 0.014 0.614
      (0.587) (0.15)
   LC-Plasma 211 ± 77 317 ± 182 0.003  
      (0.689)  
LDH (Unit/L) Placebo 193 ± 27 214 ± 39 0.007 0.195
      (0.634) (0.38)
   LC-Plasma 179 ± 21 200 ± 35 0.001  
      (0.729)  
Adrenaline (ng/mL) Placebo 2.16 ± 0.75 6.14 ± 2.17 <  0.001 0.386
      (2.231) (0.25)
   LC-Plasma 1.76 ± 0.81 5.67 ± 1.54 < 0.001  
      (2.806)  
Cortisol (μg/dL) Placebo 0.43 ± 0.22 0.43 ± 0.21 0.954 0.726
      (−0.012) (0.10)
   LC-Plasma 0.43 ± 0.29 0.40 ± 0.26 0.672  
      (−0.084)  
  1. aA statistical comparison was made by paired t test
  2. bA statistical comparison was made by student’s t test
  3. cEffect size was presented as Cohen’s D