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Table 3 Mean Likert-Scores of the WHQOLBREF-Items Displayed by Race Distance

From: Quality of life of female and male vegetarian and vegan endurance runners compared to omnivores – results from the NURMI study (step 2)

  Control Group NURMI-Runners  
Question Total 10 KM HM M/UM p η2
How would you rate your Quality of Life? 1
 Women 4.33 ± 0.58 4.33 ± 0.58 4.26 ± 0.62 4.44 ± 0.51 0.111 0.016
 Men 4.48 ± 0.65 4.45 ± 0.58 4.59 ± 0.56 4.37 ± 0.79
How satisfied are you with your health? 2
 Women 4.09 ± 0.93 3.93 ± 1.03 4.18 ± 0.89 4.37 ± 0.69 0.111 0.016
 Men 4.30 ± 0.95 4.39 ± 0.68 4.30 ± 1.03 4.21 ± 1.04
To what extent do you feel that physical pain prevents you from doing what you need to do? 3
 Women 4.67 ± 0.58 4.67 ± 0.58 4.72 ± 0.53 4.56 ± 0.70 0.314 0.008
 Men 4.66 ± 0.57 4.85 ± 0.36 4.67 ± 0.56 4.51 ± 0.69
How much do you need any medical treatment to function in your daily life? 3
 Women 4.82 ± 0.43 4.83 ± 0.42 4.89 ± 0.45 4.81 ± 0.40 0.746 0.002
 Men 4.78 ± 0.66 4.82 ± 0.47 4.85 ± 0.63 4.67 ± 0.81
How much do you enjoy life? 3
 Women 4.17 ± 0.71 4.13 ± 0.72 4.18 ± 0.73 4.26 ± 0.66 0.924 0.001
 Men 4.17 ± 0.71 4.12 ± 0.60 4.11 ± 0.90 4.28 ± 0.55
To what extent do you feel your life to be meaningful? 3
 Women 4.11 ± 0.78 4.05 ± 0.84 4.12 ± 0.76 4.26 ± 0.66 0.950 < 0.001
 Men 4.31 ± 0.81 4.24 ± 0.71 4.30 ± 1.03 4.37 ± 0.62
How well are you able to concentrate? 4
 Women 3.89 ± 0.76 3.87 ± 0.74 3.89 ± 0.80 3.93 ± 0.73 0.903 0.001
 Men 4.01 ± 0.71 3.97 ± 0.59 3.96 ± 0.70 4.09 ± 0.81
How safe do you feel in your daily life? 4
 Women 4.16 ± 0.66 4.04 ± 0.71 4.23 ± 0.60 4.37 ± 0.57 0.267 0.010
 Men 4.28 ± 0.76 4.30 ± 0.68 4.26 ± 0.91 4.28 ± 0.67
How healthy is your physical environment? 4
 Women 3.91 ± 0.78 3.75 ± 0.84 4.07 ± 0.73 4.04 ± 0.65 0.220 0.011
 Men 3.98 ± 0.80 4.00 ± 0.71 4.07 ± 0.88 3.86 ± 0.77
Do you have enough energy for everyday life? 4
 Women 4.18 ± 0.64 4.07 ± 0.70 4.28 ± 0.56 4.26 ± 0.59 0.888 0.001
 Men 4.34 ± 0.59 4.18 ± 0.64 4.37 ± 0.53 4.44 ± 0.59
Are you able to accept your bodily appearance? 4
 Women 4.00 ± 0.70 3.95 ± 0.70 4.00 ± 0.71 4.15 ± 0.72 0.349 0.008
 Men 4.24 ± 0.64 4.15 ± 0.80 4.35 ± 0.53 4.19 ± 0.63
Have you enough money to meet your needs? 4
 Women 3.98 ± 0.79 3.91 ± 0.87 4.00 ± 0.73 4.15 ± 0.66 0.826 0.001
 Men 3.93 ± 0.82 3.79 ± 0.82 3.98 ± 0.86 3.98 ± 0.77
How available to you is the information that you need in your day-to-day life? 4
 Women 4.65 ± 0.50 4.64 ± 0.51 4.68 ± 0.47 4.63 ± 0.57 0.242 0.010
 Men 4.71 ± 0.45 4.55 ± 0.51 4.78 ± 0.42 4.77 ± 0.43
To what extent do you have the opportunity for leisure activities? 4
 Women 4.33 ± 0.70 4.21 ± 0.76 4.51 ± 0.57 4.30 ± 0.72 0.481 0.005
 Men 4.28 ± 0.68 4.00 ± 0.66 4.41 ± 0.69 4.35 ± 0.65
How well are you able to get around? 1
 Women 4.84 ± 0.37 4.76 ± 0.43 4.91 ± 0.29 4.93 ± 0.27 0.394 0.007
 Men 4.88 ± 0.33 4.85 ± 0.36 4.87 ± 0.34 4.91 ± 0.29
How satisfied are you with your sleep? 2
 Women 3.82 ± 0.91 3.83 ± 0.95 3.81 ± 0.85 3.81 ± 0.96 0.530 0.005
 Men 3.96 ± 0.85 4.12 ± 0.76 4.00 ± 0.81 3.79 ± 0.97
How satisfied are you with your ability to perform your daily living activities? 2
 Women 4.26 ± 0.72 4.23 ± 0.75 4.18 ± 0.74 4.52 ± 0.58 0.226 0.011
 Men 4.34 ± 0.57 4.21 ± 0.49 4.39 ± 0.54 4.40 ± 0.66
How satisfied are you with your capacity for work? 2
 Women 4.23 ± 0.71 4.23 ± 0.67 4.18 ± 0.69 4.33 ± 0.88 0.884 0.001
 Men 4.46 ± 0.61 4.45 ± 0.56 4.43 ± 0.62 4.49 ± 0.63
How satisfied are you with yourself? 2
 Women 3.96 ± 0.72 3.95 ± 0.73 3.91 ± 0.66 4.11 ± 0.80 0.095 0.017
 Men 4.14 ± 0.61 4.09 ± 0.77 4.28 ± 0.46 4.02 ± 0.60
How satisfied are you with your personal relationships? 2
 Women 4.02 ± 0.82 4.05 ± 0.80 3.96 ± 0.84 4.04 ± 0.85 0.699 0.003
 Men 4.08 ± 0.80 4.00 ± 0.71 4.11 ± 0.85 4.12 ± 0.82
How satisfied are you with your sex life? 2
 Women 3.58 ± 0.96 3.64 ± 0.94 3.51 ± 1.04 3.59 ± 0.84 0.698 0.003
 Men 3.58 ± 1.09 3.48 ± 1.15 3.54 ± 1.13 3.70 ± 1.01
How satisfied are you with the support you get from your friends? 2
 Women 3.99 ± 0.73 3.87 ± 0.68 4.11 ± 0.80 4.07 ± 0.68 0.423 0.006
 Men 3.85 ± 0.75 3.76 ± 0.61 4.04 ± 0.82 3.72 ± 0.73
How satisfied are you with the conditions of your living place? 2
 Women 4.13 ± 0.90 4.03 ± 0.94 4.21 ± 0.90 4.22 ± 0.75 0.861 0.001
 Men 4.14 ± 0.91 3.91 ± 0.98 4.20 ± 0.96 4.26 ± 0.79
How satisfied are you with your access to health services? 2
 Women 4.19 ± 0.81 4.00 ± 0.85 4.39 ± 0.75 4.33 ± 0.68 0.403 0.007
 Men 4.25 ± 0.75 4.18 ± 0.73 4.33 ± 0.70 4.21 ± 0.83
How satisfied are you with your transport? 2
 Women 4.25 ± 0.79 4.24 ± 0.69 4.25 ± 0.87 4.30 ± 0.87 0.073 0.019
 Men 4.36 ± 0.77 4.03 ± 0.85 4.54 ± 0.66 4.42 ± 0.76
How often do you have negative feelings such as blue mood, despair, anxiety, depression? 5
 Women 3.80 ± 0.80 3.80 ± 0.82 3.65 ± 0.79 4.11 ± 0.70 0.109 0.016
 Men 4.37 ± 0.65 4.39 ± 0.61 4.37 ± 0.68 4.35 ± 0.65
  1. Note. Results are presented as mean ± SD. 10 km – 10 Kilometer Control Group. HM – Half Marathon. M – Marathon. UM – Ultramarathon. p – p-value for ANOVA test. η2 – effect size
  2. 11 = very poor, 2 = poor, 3 = neither poor nor good, 4 = good, 5 = very good
  3. 21 = very dissatisfied, 2 = dissatisfied, 3 = neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, 4 = satisfied, 5 = very satisfied
  4. 31 = not at all, 2 = a little, 3 = a moderate amount, 4 = very much, 5 = an extreme amount
  5. 41 = not at all, 2 = a little, 3 = moderately, 4 = mostly, 5 = completely
  6. 51 = never, 2 = seldom, 3 = quite often, 4 = very often, 5 = always