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Table 2 Mean Likert-Scores of the WHOQOLBREF-Items Displayed by Diet Group

From: Quality of life of female and male vegetarian and vegan endurance runners compared to omnivores – results from the NURMI study (step 2)

Question Total Omnivorous Vegetarian/Vegan p η2
How would you rate your Quality of Life? 1
 Women 4.33 ± 0.58 4.38 ± 0.59 4.30 ± 0.58 0.450 0.002
 Men 4.48 ± 0.65 4.46 ± 0.74 4.49 ± 0.53
How satisfied are you with your health? 2
 Women 4.09 ± 0.93 4.03 ± 1.11 4.13 ± 0.82 0.176 0.007
 Men 4.30 ± 0.95 4.11 ± 1.13 4.51 ± 0.68
To what extent do you feel that physical pain prevents you from doing what you need to do? 3
 Women 1.33 ± 0.58 1.31 ± 0.65 1.35 ± 0.54 0.145 0.008
 Men 1.34 ± 0.57 1.42 ± 0.62 1.25 ± 0.52
How much do you need any medical treatment to function in your daily life? 3
 Women 1.15 ± 0.42 1.24 ± 0.55 1.10 ± 0.34 0.357 0.003
 Men 1.22 ± 0.67 1.23 ± 0.68 1.21 ± 0.65
How much do you enjoy life? 3
 Women 4.17 ± 0.71 4.31 ± 0.79 4.09 ± 0.67 0.354 0.003
 Men 4.17 ± 0.71 4.20 ± 0.73 4.14 ± 0.69
To what extent do you feel your life to be meaningful? 3
 Women 4.16 ± 0.65 4.19 ± 0.71 4.15 ± 0.62 0.487 0.002
 Men 4.28 ± 0.77 4.31 ± 0.86 4,25 ± 0.67
How well are you able to concentrate? 3  
 Women 3.89 ± 0.75 4.02 ± 0.82 3.81 ± 0.72 0.217 0.006
 Men 4.01 ± 0.72 4.00 ± 0.78 4.02 ± 0.65
How safe do you feel in your daily life? 3  
 Women 4.16 ± 0.65 4.19 ± 0.71 4.15 ± 0.62 0.904 < 0.001
 Men 4.28 ± 0.77 4.31 ± 0.86 4.25 ± 0.67
How healthy is your physical environment? 3
 Women 3.91 ± 0.78 3.93 ± 0.75 3.90 ± 0.81 0.190 0.006
 Men 3.98 ± 0.80 4.11 ± 0.80 3.82 ± 0.81
Do you have enough energy for everyday life? 4
 Women 4.18 ± 0.64 4.16 ± 0.70 4.19 ± 0.61 0.893 < 0.001
 Men 4.34 ± 0.61 4.34 ± 0.62 4.35 ± 0.61
Are you able to accept your bodily appearance? 4
 Women 4.00 ± 0.70 3.79 ± 0.73 4.02 ± 0.69 0.407 0.002
 Men 4.24 ± 0.69 4.28 ± 0.66 4.19 ± 0.72
Have you enough money to meet your needs? 4
 Women 3.98 ± 0.79 4.14 ± 0.63 3.89 ± 0.88 0.261 0.005
 Men 3.93 ± 0.82 3.94 ± 0.86 3.91 ± 0.77
How available to you is the information that you need in your day-to-day life? 4
 Women 4.65 ± 0.50 4.79 ± 0.43 4.57 ± 0.54 0.093 0.010
 Men 4.71 ± 0.46 4.72 ± 0.46 4.70 ± 0.46
To what extent do you have the opportunity for leisure activities? 4
 Women 4.33 ± 0.70 4.43 ± 0.73 4.28 ± 0.68 0.089 0.010
 Men 4.28 ± 0.69 4.22 ± 0.75 4.35 ± 0.61
How well are you able to get around? 1  
 Women 4.84 ± 0.39 4.78 ± 0.46 4.87 ± 0.34 0.198 0.006
 Men 4.88 ± 0.33 4.89 ± 0.32 4.86 ± 0.35
How satisfied are you with your sleep? 2  
 Women 3.82 ± 0.91 3.64 ± 0.85 3.92 ± 0.95 0.030 0.017
 Men 3.96 ± 0.85 4.05 ± 0.85 3.86 ± 0.86
How satisfied are you with your ability to perform your daily living activities? 2
 Women 4.26 ± 0.72 4.36 ± 0.62 4.20 ± 0.78 0.197 0.006
 Men 4.34 ± 0.58 4.32 ± 0.62 4.37 ± 0.53
How satisfied are you with your capacity for work? 2
 Women 4.23 ± 0.71 4.28 ± 0.67 4.23 ± 0.71 0.717 < 0.001
 Men 4.46 ± 0.65 4.52 ± 0.68 4.39 ± 0.61
How satisfied are you with yourself? 2  
 Women 3.75 ± 0.60 4.00 ± 0.62 3.94 ± 0.82 0.821 < 0.001
 Men 4.14 ± 0.72 4.18 ± 0.79 4.09 ± 0.64
How satisfied are you with your personal relationships? 2
 Women 4.02 ± 0.82 4.09 ± 0.76 3.98 ± 0.86 0.366 0.003
 Men 4.08 ± 0.80 4.22 ± 0.79 3.93 ± 0.83
How satisfied are you with your sex life? 2
 Women 3.58 ± 0.96 3.52 ± 0.98 3.62 ± 0.95 0.170 0.007
 Men 3.58 ± 1.09 3.69 ± 1.11 3.46 ± 1.08
How satisfied are you with the support you get from your friends? 2
 Women 3.99 ± 0.73 4.00 ± 0.62 3.98 ± 0.79 0.067 0.012
 Men 3.85 ± 0.76 4.02 ± 0.72 3.67 ± 0.81
How satisfied are you with the conditions of your living place? 2
 Women 4.13 ± 0.90 4.28 ± 0.89 4.04 ± 0.91 0.386 0.003
 Men 4.14 ± 0.91 4.34 ± 0.95 3.91 ± 0.88
How satisfied are you with your access to health services? 2
 Women 4.19 ± 0.81 4.22 ± 0.75 4.18 ± 0.84 0.654 0.001
 Men 4.25 ± 0.75 4.31 ± 0.84 4.18 ± 0.66
How satisfied are you with your transport? 2
 Women 4.25 ± 0.79 4.31 ± 0.63 4.22 ± 0.87 0.830 < 0.001
 Men 4.36 ± 0.78 4.38 ± 0.83 4.33 ± 0.72
How often do you have negative feelings such as blue mood, despair, anxiety, depression? 5
 Women 2.23 ± 0.83 1.95 ± 0.76 2.23 ± 0.83 0.261 0.005
 Men 1.63 ± 0.88 1.54 ± 0.94 1.74 ± 0.81
  1. Note. Results are presented as mean ± SD. p – p-value for ANOVA test. η2 – effect size
  2. 11 = very poor, 2 = poor, 3 = neither poor nor good, 4 = good, 5 = very good
  3. 21 = very dissatisfied, 2 = dissatisfied, 3 = neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, 4 = satisfied, 5 = very satisfied
  4. 31 = not at all, 2 = a little, 3 = a moderate amount, 4 = very much, 5 = an extreme amount
  5. 41 = not at all, 2 = a little, 3 = moderately, 4 = mostly, 5 = completely
  6. 51 = never, 2 = seldom, 3 = quite often, 4 = very often, 5 = always