Skip to main content

Table 4 Changes in blood biochemical and hematological markers before and after resistance training and supplementation

From: Eight weeks of resistance training in conjunction with glutathione and L-Citrulline supplementation increases lean mass and has no adverse effects on blood clinical safety markers in resistance-trained males

Variable Placebo CIT-malate GSH + CIT
Baseline 8 weeks Baseline 8 weeks Baseline 8 weeks
Glucose (mg/dl) 93.3 ± 2.7 93.1 ± 3.4 97.5 ± 3.4 101.8 ± 3.9 93.9 ± 1.7 93.5 ± 2.8
Total protein (g/dl) 7.3 ± 0.1 7.2 ± 0.1 7.4 ± 0.1 7.2 ± 0.1 7.4 ± 0.1 7.3 ± 0.1
Urea nitrogen (mg/dl) 18.6 ± 0.9 16.9 ± 0.6 16.8 ± 0.8 16.9 ± 0.7 16.1 ± 0.7* 15.4 ± 0.5
Creatinine (mg/dl) 1.1 ± 0.03 1.0 ± 0.02 1.1 ± 0.03 1.1 ± 0.04 1.0 ± 0.02 1.0 ± 0.02
Bilirubin (mg/dl) 0.6 ± 0.05 1.0 ± 0.3 0.7 ± 0.08 0.6 ± 0.05 0.7 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.07
AST (IU/l) 25.9 ± 1.9 23.4 ± 1.4 23.8 ± 1.5 21.3 ± 1.3 25.6 ± 3.2 21.8 ± 1.8
ALT (IU/l) 26.0 ± 2.4 25.8 ± 2.8 24.9 ± 2.4 22.9 ± 1.8 28.3 ± 7.9 20.0 ± 1.4
Albumin (g/dl) 4.9 ± 0.04 4.7 ± 0.05 4.9 ± 0.05 4.7 ± 0.05 4.8 ± 0.05 4.7 ± 0.04
Albumin/Globulin 2.0 ± 0.04 1.9 ± 0.05 2.0 ± 0.07 1.9 ± 0.06 1.9 ± 0.05 1.8 ± 0.05
ALP (IU/l) 71.0 ± 3.4 71.3 ± 4.4 74.9 ± 4.5 73.0 ± 4.5 71.5 ± 4.4 71.0 ± 3.5
WBC (× 103/μl) 5.5 ± 0.3 5.3 ± 0.3 6.2 ± 0.3 5.7 ± 0.3 6.1 ± 0.3 5.7 ± 0.3
RBC (× 106/μl) 5.1 ± 0.08 5.1 ± 0.07 5.1 ± 0.07 5.1 ± 0.06 5.1 ± 0.05 5.1 ± 0.06
Hb (g/dl) 15.3 ± 0.2 15.3 ± 0.2 15.1 ± 0.2 15.0 ± 0.1 15.1 ± 0.2 15.0 ± 0.2
Platelet (× 103/μl) 222.3 ± 7.3 203.2 ± 7.1 218.2 ± 10.9 212.4 ± 8.0 237.3 ± 14.2 223.5 ± 12.2
Red cell distribution width 13.1 ± 0.1 13.2 ± 0.2 13.3 ± 0.1 13.5 ± 0.4 13.2 ± 0.1 13.1 ± 0.1
Absolute Neutrophils (μl− 1) 3042.8 ± 217.4 2877.7 ± 300.0 3652.2 ± 306.1 3292.4 ± 318.9 3548.3 ± 235.3 3312.7 ± 259.4
Absolute Lymphocytes (μl− 1) 1864.1 ± 87.4 1784.3 ± 93.9 2032.1 ± 131.4 1902.7 ± 85.5 1956.6 ± 110.3 1780.1 ± 84.8
Absolute Monocytes (μl− 1) 411.4 ± 39.6 457.7 ± 35.3 371.8 ± 25.6 370.5 ± 30.7 445.8 ± 39.1 402.3 ± 38.1
Absolute Eosinophil s (μl− 1) 185.5 ± 30.1 209.7 ± 36.2 130.5 ± 16.6 312.8 ± 79.5 155.6 ± 30.2 256.9 ± 43.8
Absolute Basophils (μl− 1) 33.8 ± 4.4 20.9 ± 1.9 31.2 ± 3.3 26.8 ± 3.2 22.8 ± 2.7* 22.1 ± 2.6
  1. Mean ± SEM, *Significantly different from Placebo (p < 0.05). AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, WBC white blood cell, RBC red blood cell, Hb hemoglobin