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Table 3 Variables of oxidative stress between the groups (n-3 and placebo) and times (pre-exercise and post-exercise)

From: Effects of n-3 fatty acids and exercise on oxidative stress parameters in type 2 diabetic: a randomized clinical trial

  n-3 PUFA (n = 15) Placebo (n = 15)  
Baseline Follow-up Baseline Follow-up  
Pre-exercise Post-exercise Pre-exercise Post-exercise Pre-exercise Post-exercise Pre-exercise Post-exercise P value*
us-CRP (mg/dL) 2.88 ± 3.2 3.10 ± 3.35 2.37 ± 2.42 2.56 ± 2.66 3.36 ± 3.39 3.63 ± 3.61 3.19 ± 3.26 3.43 ± 3.51  
Log us-PCR (mg/dL)a 0.50 ± 0.29 0.53 ± 0.3 0.45 ± 0.28 0.47 ± 0.28 0.51 ± 0.28 0.49 ± 0.27 0.53 ± 0.29 0.50 ± 0.29 0.712
Diff. Mean (95% CI) 0.02 (0.01 to 0.03) 0.02 (0.01 to 0.04) 0.03 (0.01 to 0.04) 0.02 (0.01 to 0.03)  
Cohen’s d 0.10 0.07 0.07 0.10  
TBARS (pmolTBARS/mgPTN) 40.2 ± 20.9 36.7 ± 17 29.7 ± 9.9 32.5 ± 11.8 38.4 ± 19.2 40.0 ± 20.5 37.5 ± 17.7 33.1 ± 11.8 0.052
Diff. Mean (95% CI) −3.8 (− 10 to 2.4) − 2.9 (−1.6 to 7.4) 1.62 (− 1.03 to 4.28) −4.4 (− 10.7 to 1.8)  
Cohen’s d 0.18 0.26 0.08 0.28  
F2-isoprostanes (ng/mL) 325.9 ± 314.5 262.2 ± 113 267 ± 124.9 255.1 ± 134.1 284.5 ± 190.1 319.9 ± 149.1 282.1 ± 147.3 226.1 ± 114.4  
Log F2-isoprostanes (ng/mL)a 2.4 ± 0.39 2.36 ± 0.26 2.34 ± 0.34 2.32 ± 0.32 2.37 ± 0.29 2.45 ± 0.25 2.37 ± 0.28 2.30 ± 0.2 0.438
Diff. Mean (95% CI) −0.05 (− 0.19 to 0.10) −0.02 (− 0.19 to 0.16) 0.08 (− 0.05 to 0.21) −0.07 (− 0.18 to 0.04)  
Cohen’s d 0.12 0.06 0.26 0.28  
Uric Acid (mg/L) 47.5 ± 16.0 48.6 ± 17.7 47.9 ± 19.1 46.9 ± 17.2 38.6 ± 8.1 39.8 ± 7.0 36.2 ± 6.9 36.6 ± 7.3  
Log Uric Acid (mg/L)b 6.71 ± 0.91 6.77 ± 1.05 6.70 ± 1.12 6.64 ± 0.99 6.24 ± 0.71 6.36 ± 0.74 6.04 ± 0.64 6.09 ± 0.74 0.639
Diff. Mean (95% CI) 0.06 (− 0.14 to 0.26) −0.06 (− 0.19 to 0.08) 0.12 (− 0.13 to 0.38) 0.04 (− 0.13 to 0.22)  
Cohen’s d 0.06 0.06 0.17 0.07  
TRAP (contains/min) 148,779 ± 51,653 158,420 ± 51,275 182,404 ± 29,313 148,520 ± 31,339 168,614 ± 36,302 166,249 ± 44,925 152,720 ± 347,681 155,678 ± 42,763 0.023
Diff. Mean (95% CI) 9641 (− 20,068 to 39,351) −33,884 (− 56,976 to − 10,793)** − 2366 (− 29,426 to 24,695) 2957 (−20,724 to 26,639)  
Cohen’s d 0.19 1.12 0.06 0.01  
SOD (USOD/mgPTN) 1.90 ± 0.99 2.44 ± 1.34 4.04 ± 2.33 4.60 ± 2.62 3.08 ± 1.74 3.06 ± 1.34 3.30 ± 1.23 3.90 ± 1.75  
Log SOD (USOD/mgPTN)b 1.34 ± 0.36 1.52 ± 0.38 1.96 ± 0.60 2.06 ± 0.57 1.68 ± 0.37 1.70 ± 0.29 1.77 ± 0.32 1.90 ± 0.42 0.095
Diff. Mean (95% CI) 0.18 (− 0.05 to 0.41) 0.11 (− 0.46 to 0.67) 0.02 (− 0.23 to 0.26) 0.13 (−0.20 to 0.45)  
Cohen’s d 0.49 0.17 0.06 0.34  
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation. * Models were adjusted for age, gender, duration of diabetes and use of drugs, a Logarithmic transformation, b Square root transformation, ** p = 0.004 compared to before supplementation
  2. Abbreviations: hs-CRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein, TBARS thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, SOD superoxide dismutase
  3. p value in bold was statiscally significant