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Table 2 Results from the subgroup meta-analyses

From: Effects of caffeine intake on muscle strength and power: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroup analysis SMD [95% CI] p-value Mean caffeine dose (mg.kg−1[range])
Strength outcomes
Upper body strength 0.21 [0.02, 0.39] 0.026 4.7 [0.9–6]
Lower body strength 0.15 [−0.05, 0.34] 0.147 4.8 [0.9–6]
Capsule form of caffeine 0.27 [0.04, 0.50] 0.023 4.7 [2–6]
Liquid form of caffeine 0.11 [−0.17, 0.39] 0.462 6 [6]
Males 0.21 [0.02, 0.41] 0.034 4.7 [0.9–6]
Females 0.15 [−0.13, 0.43] 0.294 5 [2–6]
Trained participants 0.18 [−0.02, 0.37] 0.076 4.8 [0.9–6]
Untrained participants 0.27 [−0.09, 0.63] 0.144 4.8 [2–5]
Power outcomes
Capsule form of caffeine 0.14 [−0.06, 0.34] 0.174 4.6 [2–7]
Liquid form of caffeine 0.24 [−0.06, 0.54] 0.124 5.2 [3.7–6]
Males 0.16 [−0.02, 0,34] 0.081 5.3 [3–7]
Females 0.23 [−0.23, 0.69] 0.323 4.8 [2–6]
Athletes 0.23 [0.03, 0.42] 0.025 4.4 [2–6]
Non athletes 0.03 [−0.33, 0.40] 0.854 6.5 [6–7]
Countermovement jump 0.14 [−0.04, 0.32] 0.138 5.0 [3.7–7]
Sargent test 0.31 [−0.09, 0.70] 0.129 4.3 [2–6]
  1. SMD standardized mean difference, CI confidence interval