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Table 1 Studies included in the analysis: summary of study designs

From: Effects of caffeine intake on muscle strength and power: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Study design Participants age (years) Sample size and sex Resistance/sport training experience Habitual caffeine intake (mg.d−1)a Caffeine form Caffeine dosage (mg.kg−1) Timing of caffeine ingestion before the experimental session(s) [minutes]) Exercise(s) used for the muscle strength/power assessment PEDro score
Ali et al. [7] 2016 RDB 24 ± 4 10 females Athletes 0–300 Capsule 6 60 CMJ 10
Andrade-Souza et al. [22] 2014 RDB 25 ± 3 11 males Athletes N/A Capsule 6 60 CMJ 8
Arazi et al. [12] 2016a RDB 17 ± 1 10 females Untrained/ Athletes <  60 Capsule 2 and 5 60 LP and ST 10
Arazi et al. [11] 2016b RDB 21 ± 4 15 males Untrained N/A Capsule 6 60 BP and LP 10
Astorino et al. [3] 2008 RDB 23 ± 4 22 males Trained 110 ± 152 Capsule 6 60 BP and LP 10
Bloms et al. [8] 2016 RSB 20 ± 1 9 females Athletes N/A Capsule 5 60 CMJ and SJ 8
21 ± 2 16 males
Brooks et al. [13] 2015 RDB 21 ± 3 14 males Untrained N/A Capsule 5 60 MBS 10
Clarke et al. [23] 2016 RDB 21 ± 2 8 males Athletes N/A Capsule 3 60 and during the testing sessions CMJ 10
Diaz-Lara et al. [15] 2016 RDB 29 ± 3 14 males Trained/ Athletes <  60 Capsule 3 60 BP and CMJ 10
Foskett et al. [24] 2009 RDB 24 ± 5 12 males Athletes 0–350 Liquid 6 60 CMJ 10
Gant et al. [25] 2010 RDB 21 ± 3 15 males Athletes N/A Liquid 260 (fixed) 3.7 on average 60 and during the testing sessions CMJ 10
Gauvin [26] 2016 RDB 22 ± 2 23 males Untrained/ Non-athletes < 200 per week Capsule 7 60 CMJ 9
Goldstein et al. [5] 2010 RDB 25 ± 7 15 females Trained <  250 (n = 8) >  250 (n = 7) Liquid 6 60 BP 10
Grgic et al. [4] 2017 RDB 26 ± 6 17 males Trained/ Non-athletes 58 ± 92 Liquid 6 60 BP, BBS and ST 9
Martin [16] 2015 RDB 20 ± 1 12 males Trained N/A Gel 75 (fixed) - 0.9 on average 60 BP and BBS 10
Sabblah et al. [14] 2015 RSB 24 ± 3 7 females Trained N/A Liquid 5 60 BP and MBS 8
28 ± 6 10 males
Williams et al. [6] 2008 RDB 26 ± 4 9 males Trained ‘Low’ (no exact values) Capsule 300 (fixed) - 3.6 on average 45 BP and LPD 10
  1. aintake per day unless stated otherwise; RDB randomized double-blind study, RSB randomized single-blind study, CMJ countermovement jump, SJ squat jump, LP leg press, ST Sargent test, BP bench press, MBS machine-based squat, LPD lat pulldown, BBS barbell back squat