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Table 3 Effect sizes for acute effects of pre-workout supplements

From: Effects of two pre-workout supplements on concentric and eccentric force production during lower body resistance exercise in males and females: a counterbalanced, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

  Energy Focus Fatigue
M F M F M F
  % d % d % d % d % d % d
P +8% 0.3 +17% 0.3 +8% 0.3 +17% 0.3 −16% −0.1 −32% −0.4
NC +13% 0.5 +17% 0.3 +17% 0.5 +13% 0.3 −38% −0.6 −7% −0.1
C +15% 0.7 +44% 0.8 +15% 0.5 +25% 0.4 −38% −0.5 −20% −0.5
  1. Cohen’s d effect sizes calculated as the difference between pre- and post-supplementation means divided by the pooled standard deviation