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Table 1 Levels of salivary analytes at two time points during rest and exercise trials in males and females, degree of change between the time points by percentage (Δ) and the significance of this change (P)

From: Salivary diagnostic markers in males and females during rest and exercise

  Rest   Exercise  
T1 T2 Δ (%) P T1 T2 Δ (%) P
Flow rate (g · min-1)
 Males 0.64 ± 0.47 0.72 ± 0.57 8.9 ± 26.6 0.176   0.81 ± 0.38 0.77 ± 0.52 -1.7 ± 39.5 0.730  
 Females 0.34 0.13 0.40 ± 0.12 21.3 ± 31.0 0.010 0.32 ± 0.19 0.38 ± 0.24 16.7 ± 24.4 0.031
Osmolality (mOsmol · kg-1)
 Males 65.4 ± 15.8 65.9 ± 18.7 0.31 ± 9.1 0.850   62.1 ± 18.5 71.3 ± 34.8 11.9 ± 27.1 0.287  
 Females 57.3 ± 15.1 56.0 ± 11.8 -0.20 ± 15.1 0.650   66.3 ± 16.6 68.8 ± 11.2 6.1 ± 14.0 0.434  
Na (mmol · L-1)
 Males 4.5 ± 2.2 5.1 ± 1.8 28.3 ± 48.9 0.451   5.1 ± 2.5 9.3 ± 12.0 37.7 ± 69.8 0.285  
 Females 6.4 ± 3.2 5.0 ± 1.3 -11.0 ± 31.0 0.136   5.3 ± 2.4 6.6 ± 1.8 35.9 ± 61.6 0.199  
K (mmol · L-1)
 Males 19.7 ± 4.1 21.3 ± 6.2 10.6 ± 40.5 0.528   22.3 ± 4.6 22.8 ± 5.1 2.2 ± 11.0 0.626  
 Females 21.9 ± 6.0 19.5 ± 4.8 -9.3 ± 15.1 0.060 23.5 ± 5.5 24.3 ± 5.5 3.9 ± 7.5 0.150  
Cl (mmol · L-1)
 Males 32.6 ± 13.2 35.9 ± 20.4 13.8 ± 64.7 0.634   32.2 ± 13.5 36.6 ± 22.6 10.6 ± 26.2 0.343  
 Females 49.6 ± 27.2 43.1 ± 23.3 -9.7 ± 26.7 0.193   37.6 ± 19.1 38.7 ± 16.6 5.9 ± 14.3 0.543  
SIgA concentration (mg · L-1)
 Males 65.7 ± 42.2 66.8 ± 52.0 -3.5 ± 31.1 0.895   56.1 ± 41.2 61.2 ± 49.2 12.0 ± 53.4 0.526  
 Females 86.4 ± 49.0 60.2 ± 35.8 8.3 ± 130.1 0.120   95.2 ± 103.9 112.9 ± 91.3 46.1 ± 63.4 0.083
SIgA secretion rate (μg · min-1)
 Males 33.6 ± 17.5 39.1 ± 37.2 12.8 ± 59.9 0.559   39.6 ± 35.1 31.1 ± 12.9 7.5 ± 62.4 0.486  
 Females 25.2 ± 17.1 24.1 ± 18.8 34.6 ± 137.1 0.275   29.7 ± 27.8 45.5 ± 34.4 78.8 ± 110.3 0.032
α-amylase activity (U∙mL-1)
 Males 34.6 ± 20.4 38.2 ± 22.1 12.3 ± 12.2 0.050 34.8 ± 19.5 44.0 ± 24.6 26.5 ± 19.0 0.034
 Females 25.7 ± 23.5 29.5 ± 24.9 24.9 ± 27.4 0.030 41.7 ± 21.9 56.3 ± 22.3 35.2 ± 32.9 <0.001
α-amylase secretion rate (U · min-1)
 Males 20.8 ± 18.9 27.6 ± 26.1 26.6 ± 34.4 0.559   28.1 ± 22.2 30.5 ± 22.6 22.9 ± 53.5 0.672  
 Females 7.3 ± 5.9 11.3 ± 9.6 68.4 ± 51.5 0.275   13.1 ± 9.5 20.6 ± 12.1 68.4 ± 51.5 0.004
Cortisol (nmol · L-1)
 Males 4.21 ± 0.73 4.02 ± 0.48 -3.7 ± 8.2 0.210   4.63 ± 0.71 4.55 ± 0.60 -1.0 ± 8.5 0.617  
 Females 5.95 ± 2.26 5.26 ± 2.16 -11.4 ± 8.3 <0.001 6.00 ± 1.88 5.96 ± 2.08 -0.3 ± 10.8 0.894  
  1. UWS was sampled at 15 min (T1) and 45 min (T2) during each protocol. Arrows indicate whether there was an increase (↑) or decrease (↓) in the levels of the corresponding analyte over time