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Table 2 Mean values (± SD) of the anthropometric characteristics, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC), root mean square (RMS) of the EMG signal and neuromuscular efficiency of the biceps brachial muscle during MVC, and absolute endurance time at 75 % MVC (T lim ) of elbow flexion obtained from the three sessions: before Ramadan (S1), in the first week of Ramadan (S2), and in the fourth week of Ramadan (S3)

From: Ramadan fasting does not adversely affect neuromuscular performances and reaction times in trained karate athletes

  S1 S2 S3
Body mass (kg) 62.1 ± 7.4 61.8 ± 7.2 61.8 ± 7.1
Body mass index (kg/m2) 20.1 ± 2.2 20.0 ± 2.1 20.0 ± 2.1
MVC (N) 907.7 ± 230.1 878.4 ± 240.1 870.2 ± 245.9
RMS (mV) 0.7 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.3
NME 1.4 ± 0.5 1.5 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.5
T lim (s) 35.3 ± 16.7 42.5 ± 22.3 29.5 ± 13.2
  1. No difference was observed among the three different sessions