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Table 1 Mean values (± SD) of daily dietary intake before Ramadan (S1), in the first week of Ramadan (S2), and in the fourth week of Ramadan (S3)

From: Ramadan fasting does not adversely affect neuromuscular performances and reaction times in trained karate athletes

  S1 S2 S3
Energy (MJ/d) 13.3 ± 2.2 15.9 ± 2.1* 16.9 ± 2.0††
Energy (Kcal/d) 3173.3 ± 531.1 3774.7 ± 527.2* 4042.1 ± 488.9††
Protein (g/d) 108.0 ± 36.7 123.6 ± 21.3 128.0 ± 22.7
Protein (% of energy) 11.9 ± 2.4 12.1 ± 2.1 11.8 ± 1.4
Carbohydrates (g/d) 439.6 ± 78.3 471.1 ± 110.4 495.3 ± 66.9
Carbohydrates (% of energy) 54.1 ± 7.0 48.1 ± 5.5* 48.3 ± 4.7
Total fat (g/d) 126.8 ± 36.4 171.2 ± 20.2** 185.2 ± 32.2†††
Total fat (% of energy) 34.0 ± 5.8 39.8 ± 5.6** 40.0 ± 5.6††
Fluid intake (l) 1.8 ± 0.6 2.2 ± 0.6** 2.2 ± 0.6
  1. *, **: significant differences between S2 and S1 at p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively
  2. †, ††, †††: significant differences between S3 and S1 at p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively