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Table 1 Hemodynamic and hematological response to supplementation for Study 1

From: Acute and chronic safety and efficacy of dose dependent creatine nitrate supplementation and exercise performance

   Time (hours)   
  Group 0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 Interaction p-Level
Hemodynamics          
 HR PLA 59.7 ± 8.2 60.1 ± 7.4 58.8 ± 7.7 57.2 ± 5.3 58.0 ± 7.4 54.8 ± 6.4 56.0 ± 7.3 Group 0.23
 (b/min) CrM 63.8 ± 11.8 60.9 ± 5.7 59.9 ± 8.2 58.2 ± 7.0 56.3 ± 6.8 59.6 ± 8.8 58.5 ± 10.0 Time 0.15
  CrN-Low 60.0 ± 8.4 57.9 ± 8.3 58.8 ± 9.0 56.3 ± 6.0 56.3 ± 6.0 56.9 ± 5.7 55.1 ± 5.9 Group × Time 0.59
  CrN-High 59.1 ± 9.0 56.7 ± 7.4 57.9 ± 5.8 58.6 ± 3.8 58.0 ± 4.1 56.8 ± 4.7 57.5 ± 3.8   
 Systolic BP PLA 114.8 ± 6.2 113.9 ± 5.6 112.6 ± 4.9 116.5 ± 6.7 116.0 ± 4.8 117.2 ± 8.5 115.5 ± 5.2 Group 0.37
 (mm Hg) CrM 114.6 ± 5.1 112.6 ± 4.4 112.2 ± 4.2 114.9 ± 5.3 112.9 ± 6.1 113.1 ± 5.8 114.9 ± 3.8 Time 0.02
  CrN-Low 115.9 ± 6.1 113.1 ± 4.1 111.9 ± 5.2 113.5 ± 6.9 114.6 ± 6.9 114.62 ± 5.0 112.5 ± 3.5 Group × Time 0.39
  CrN-High 115.4 ± 6.7 114.2 ± 5.5 111.4 ± 6.6 112.5 ± 6.0 113.5 ± 6.2 113.7 ± 9.7 114.2 ± 7.0   
 Diastolic BP PLA 73.1 ± 6.6 71.9 ± 7.5 72.2 ± 6.6 72.3 ± 7.3 73.1 ± 6.6 74.0 ± 5.5 72.3 ± 5.7 Group 0.66
 (mm Hg) CrM 70.3 ± 6.6 71.5 ± 7.8 72.5 ± 4.1 73.9 ± 5.4 72.8 ± 6.0 73.9 ± 5.0 74.5 ± 4.0 Time 0.29
  CrN-Low 72.2 ± 6.5 73.5 ± 5.4 71.9 ± 6.1 75.5 ± 5.4 74.3 ± 6.2 74.5 ± 4.6 73.1 ± 4.1 Group × Time 0.18
  CrN-High 73.1 ± 7.9 77.1 ± 4.8 73.9 ± 6.5 74.5 ± 5.2 73.7 ± 6.1 72.2 ± 7.9 72.9 ± 4.8   
Lipids           
 Total-C PLA 153.8 ± 28.4 156.2 ± 31.1 161.0 ± 31.8 162.5 ± 32.9 164.5 ± 31.2 164.6 ± 36.7 165.0 ± 36.1 Group 0.59
 (mg/dl) CrM 156.8 ± 29.3 157.2 ± 29.3 160.7 ± 34.3 157.2 ± 31.4 159.3 ± 30.4 160.3 ± 32.8 160.2 ± 28.3 Time 0.06
  CrN-Low 154.5 ± 27.6 154.2 ± 28.0 155.7 ± 31.7 156.0 ± 27.8 158.6 ± 28.9 158.5 ± 26.8 159.5 ± 27.9 Group × Time 0.77
  CrN-High 158.3 ± 30.0 163.2 ± 27.0 162.3 ± 32.6 159.9 ± 26.9 163.9 ± 32.6 162.9 ± 26.8 163.5 ± 27.9   
 HDL-C PLA 55.8 ± 15.3 58.2 ± 15.6 58.8 ± 17.4 59.9 ± 16.1 61.0 ± 15.7 61.6 ± 17.0 62.2 ± 17.9 Group 0.29
 (mg/dl) CrM 53.9 ± 17.1 54.1 ± 16.7 55.6 ± 18.4 55.1 ± 17.2 56.0 ± 17.1 56.9 ± 17.6 56.4 ± 18.8 Time 0.001
  CrN-Low 51.0 ± 14.1 50.8 ± 15.6 51.2 ± 15.0 52.1 ± 14.9 53.8 ± 14.5 54.9 ± 15.2 55.3 ± 15.8 Group × Time 0.64
  CrN-High 52.9 ± 17.5 54.7 ± 17.0 54.2 ± 16.8 54.2 ± 17.3 55.4 ± 16.9 55.2 ± 16.3 55.4 ± 17.7   
 Total-C/HDL-C PLA 2.9 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 0.8 Group 0.40
 Ratio CrM 3.1 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 0.9 3.1 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 0.8 3.1 ± 0.9 Time 0.09
 (mg/dl) CrN-Low 3.3 ± 1.2 3.3 ± 1.1 3.3 ± 1.0 3.2 ± 1.0 3.2 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 1.0 Group × Time 0.62
  CrN-High 3.3 ± 1.4 3.3 ± 1.4 3.3 ± 1.4 3.3 ± 1.5 3.3 ± 1.4 3.3 ± 1.5 3.3 ± 1.5   
 LDL-C PLA 94.0 ± 26.3 96.5 ± 27.6 98.1 ± 28.1 100.1 ± 29.1 102.4 ± 32.6 102.5 ± 32.3 102.2 ± 32.0 Group 0.72
 (mg/dl) CrM 99.1 ± 25.6 99.0 ± 24.1 102.5 ± 27.7 101.1 ± 24.7 102.0 ± 23.7 103.8 ± 26.5 102.5 ± 22.9 Time 0.06
  CrN-Low 97.2 ± 23.0 97.1 ± 22.4 98.8 ± 24.0 100.0 ± 22.4 102.4 ± 23.1 102.6 ± 21.6 104.4 ± 22.5 Group × Time 0.67
  CrN-High 102.7 ± 27.1 105.3 ± 25.8 105.0 ± 29.8 104.1 ± 26.6 101.5 ± 43.7 106.0 ± 27.0 105.4 ± 25.8   
 Triglyceride PLA 79.2 ± 26.2 82.1 ± 27.9 78.8 ± 24.8 73.9 ± 23.5 72.6 ± 21.0 71.8 ± 22.1 71.1 ± 22.6 Group 0.60
 (mg/dl) CrM 90.7 ± 33.1 88.1 ± 34.1 86.6 ± 30.9 76.2 ± 27.3 72.5 ± 25.9 73.7 ± 27.2 68.9 ± 22.6 Time 0.01
  CrN-Low 88.3 ± 36.9 94.5 ± 37.9 90.6 ± 34.7 79.4 ± 25.3 75.4 ± 20.4 73.2 ± 18.3 72.8 ± 17.9 Group × Time 0.66
  CrN-High 79.4 ± 25.6 86.1 ± 34.1 81.8 ± 29.1 73.0 ± 18.3 70.9 ± 19.5 71.9 ± 19.4 70.2 ± 20.3   
 Glucose PLA 95.8 ± 10.3 103.0 ± 10.4 92.1 ± 8.0 92.2 ± 5.5 91.5 ± 4.0 85.9 ± 26.1 91.9 ± 4.3 Group 0.33
 (mg/dl) CrM 96.3 ± 9.9 85.3 ± 27.0 91.4 ± 6.0 89.8 ± 5.1 91.4 ± 5.4 91.6 ± 5.6 91.2 ± 4.9 Time 0.01
  CrN-Low 96.3 ± 5.5 102.6 ± 8.1 94.1 ± 5.9 91.8 ± 6.5 91.2 ± 6.8 92.9 ± 6.7 92.1 ± 6.2 Group × Time 0.12
  CrN-High 94.7 ± 7.5 96.1 ± 6.4 91.4 ± 6.2 91.1 ± 4.0 90.6 ± 5.4 91.3 ± 4.2 83.8 ± 25.3   
Hepatorenal function          
 ALP PLA 7.9 ± 6.5 11.5 ± 8.0 11.9 ± 8.8 13.3 ± 9.1 13.9 ± 9.9 14.3 ± 9.4 16.9 ± 14.1 Group 0.23
 (U/L) CrM 14.7 ± 9.1 15.9 ± 11.7 15.9 ± 10.4 16.8 ± 12.9 20.5 ± 14.4 25.4 ± 15.3 24.6 ± 14.9 Time 0.001
  CrN-Low 12.3 ± 9.3 16.3 ± 10.3 20.3 ± 10.8 18.7 ± 11.5 21.7 ± 10.9 20.6 ± 10.2 22.8 ± 10.5 Group × Time 0.65
  CrN-High 12.8 ± 8.1 17.5 ± 9.5 16.1 ± 8.2 17.2 ± 11.2 16.2 ± 9.7 17.2 ± 15.6 20.1 ± 18.1   
 ALT PLA 19 ± 8.2 19.5 ± 9.1 20.2 ± 9.6 19.6 ± 8.5 20.2 ± 9.7 20.3 ± 9.3 20.2 ± 9.3 Group 0.70
 (U/L) CrM 20.3 ± 7.3 20.5 ± 7.7 21.4 ± 7.8 21.1 ± 8.4 21.1 ± 8.4 21.0 ± 7.9 21.2 ± 8.7 Time 0.001
  CrN-Low 20.1 ± 7.7 20.63 ± 8.4 20.7 ± 8.5 20.8 ± 8.1 21.3 ± 8.2 21.0 ± 8.3 21.1 ± 8.0 Group × Time 0.66
  CrN-High 21.2 ± 8.5 21.3 ± 8.3 21.5 ± 8.7 21.9 ± 8.6 21.1 ± 8.5 22.6 ± 8.8 22.7 ± 8.8   
 AST PLA 24.7 ± 4.9 23.8 ± 5.3 25.1 ± 4.7 25.4 ± 5.8 25.5 ± 5.8 25.2 ± 6.2 25.5 ± 6.1 Group 0.40
 (U/L) CrM 25.9 ± 7.9 26.5 ± 8.8 27.1 ± 8.9 26.0 ± 9.1 26.3 ± 8.8 26.5 ± 8.6 27.0 ± 9.5 Time 0.12
  CrN-Low 24.1 ± 6.1 24.6 ± 6.3 23.9 ± 5.9 24.7 ± 6.1 24.8 ± 5.3 24.3 ± 5.6 24.6 ± 5.4 Group × Time 0.64
  CrN-High 28.0 ± 15.6 28.8 ± 16.3 28.7 ± 16.4 28.8 ± 14.8 29.6 ± 15.2 28.9 ± 14.8 29.8 ± 16.0   
 CK PLA 260 ± 222 264 ± 231 266 ± 219 262 ± 210 259 ± 211 254 ± 200 247 ± 193 Group 0.40
 (U/L) CrM 160 ± 220 262 ± 222 263 ± 212 240 ± 207 249 ± 195 242 ± 189 237 ± 185 Time 0.06
  CrN-Low 265 ± 275 270 ± 273 272 ± 287 267 ± 271 266 ± 273 256 ± 250 255 ± 252 Group × Time 0.51
  CrN-High 490 ± 931 505 ± 958 497 ± 940 475 ± 864 470 ± 863 453 ± 809 470 ± 894   
 LDH PLA 168 ± 40 158 ± 24 170 ± 27 172 ± 26 169 ± 22 171 ± 30 171 ± 27 Group 0.08
 (U/L) CrM 168 ± 21 164 ± 31 168 ± 31 162 ± 23 164 ± 28 165 ± 31 172 ± 29 Time 0.39
  CrN-Low 146 ± 25 165 ± 31 155 ± 19 161 ± 23 160 ± 18 158 ± 22 159 ± 18 Group × Time 0.40
  CrN-High 169 ± 36 179 ± 42 183 ± 40 167 ± 47 196 ± 74 176 ± 32 180 ± 27   
 BUN PLA 14.4 ± 4.8 14.0 ± 4.2 14.0 ± 4.3 13.4 ± 4.5 13.2 ± 4.2 12.8 ± 4.1 12.3 ± 3.8 Group 0.28
 (mg/dl) CrM 15.2 ± 5.0 14.8 ± 4.6 14.6 ± 4.7 13.7 ± 4.5 13.4 ± 4.3 13.1 ± 4.3 12.6 ± 4.0 Time 0.001
  CrN-Low 13.5 ± 4.8 13.0 ± 4.5 12.8 ± 4.5 12.2 ± 4.1 12.1 ± 4.1 11.6 ± 3.8 11.4 ± 3.8 Group × Time 0.76
  CrN-High 14.6 ± 5.1 14.5 ± 5.22 14.1 ± 4.9 13.7 ± 5.1 13.2 ± 4.6 12.9 ± 4.3 12.7 ± 4.3   
 Creatinine PLA 1.00 ± 0.15 0.99 ± 0.16 0.99 ± 0.15 0.98 ± 0.15 0.98 ± 0.15 0.98 ± 0.17 0.95 ± 0.14d Group 0.001
 (mg/dl) CrM 0.99 ± 0.18 1.04 ± 0.17 1.04 ± 0.19 1.01 ± 0.19 0.99 ± 0.17 0.99 ± 0.17 1.00 ± 0.17 Time 0.001
  CrN-Low 1.01 ± 0.19 1.08 ± 0.18 1.09 ± 0.17a,d 1.05 ± 0.16a 1.05 ± 0.17a 1.02 ± 0.18a 1.01 ± 1.16 Group × Time 0.001
  CrN-High 1.05 ± 0.14a 1.11 ± 0.15a,b 1.17 ± 0.14a,b,c 1.12 ± 0.16a,b,c 1.06 ± 0.16a 1.03 ± 0.13a 1.02 ± 0.14   
 BUN: Creatinine PLA 14.4 ± 4.2 14.2 ± 4.1 14.3 ± 4.1 13.7 ± 3.9 13.5 ± 3.6 13.1 ± 3.4 12.9 ± 3.2 Group 0.11
 (mg/dl) CrM 15.3 ± 4.3 14.5 ± 4.3 14.2 ± 3.9 13.7 ± 4.1 13.6 ± 4.2 13.4 ± 4.1 12.7 ± 3.5 Time 0.001
  CrN-Low 13.7 ± 5.4 12.2 ± 4.6 11.9 ± 4.6 11.8 ± 4.3 11.8 ± 4.4 11.7 ± 4.1 11.5 ± 4.0 Group × Time 0.08
  CrN-High 14.0 ± 4.8 13.2 ± 4.6 12.0 ± 3.9 12.3 ± 4.0 12.6 ± 3.9 12.5 ± 3.8 12.5 ± 3.9   
  1. Data are mean ± SD. To convert respective values to mmol/L multiply total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C to mmol/L multiply by 0.0259; triglycerides by 0.0113, BUN by 0.357 and glucose by 0.0555. To convert ALP, ALT, AST, CK, LDH, to μkat/L multiply by 0.0167. To convert creatinine to μmol/L multiply by 88.54. p < 0.05 is considered significant
  2. Statistical notations. adenotes a significant difference from PLA. bdenotes a significant difference from CrM. cdenotes a significant difference from CrN-Low. ddenotes a significant difference from CrM, CrN-Low, and CrN-High