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Table 1 Vitamin D correlation and intervention studies on Maximal Oxygen Uptake (VO2max)

From: Plausible ergogenic effects of vitamin D on athletic performance and recovery

Author Reference # Population Subjects/Specimens Type of study Intervention Duration Results
Gregory et al. 2013 [37] Healthy adults 213 Healthy Male (N = 104) and Female (N = 109) Adults (44.8 ± 16.4) Correlation 3 Groups: Deficient (<50 nmol/L, N = 16), Insufficient (>50nmoI/L, but < 75 nmol/L, N = 57), Sufficient (>75 nmol/L, N = 140) 6 Months Aerobic Fitness Not Affected by 25(OH)D Levels
Mowry, Costello & Heelan 2007 [38] Mixed females 59 Non-Trained Females (age 16to 24; 19.86 ± 2.13), 55 Caucasian and 4 Asian (V02max of 39.10 ± 7.18 mL/kg/min) Correlation Serum 25(OH)D Levels of 46.19 ± 20.14 ng/mL - Significant positive association with V02max and 25(OH)D Levels & Significant inverse assocation with body fat and both V02max and 25(OH)D
Ardestani et al. 2011 [39] Healthy adults 200 Healthy Adults (age 40 ± 14.4), Male (N = 92) and Female (N = 108) (V02max of 40 ± 9.1 and 30 ± 8.5, respectively) Correlation Serum 25(OH)D levels of 34 ± 13.3 ng/mL - 25(OH)D concentrations are positively (p =0.05) related to V02max & Significant Interaction between 25(OH)D and Self- Reported Hours of Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (Higher 25(OH)D = Higher Activity)
Koundourakis et al. 2014 [40] Athletes 67 Caucasian Male Professional Soccer Players (age 25.6 ± 6.2) Correlation Performance Testing: Squat Jump (SJ), Countermovement Jump (CMJ), 10 (10 m) and 20 m(20 m)sprint, Maximal Oxygen Uptake (V02max), and anthropometry 6 Weeks (Pre Off- Sea onto Post Off- Season) Significant correlations between 25(OH)D and ALL performance parameters for both PRE and POST experimental sessions
Fitzgeral et al. 2014 [41] Athletes 52 Caucasian Competitive Ice Hockey Players (age 20.1 ± 1.5) (V02max 54.6 ± 4.3) Cross-sectional Performance Testing: Maximal Oxygen Uptake (V02peak), Max Heart Rate (HR), Peak RER, Total Exercise Time 1 Month Recruiting Phase During Off-Season (May to June) All Athletes had 25(OH)D Levels <. 65.0 ng/mL, 37.7 % of the Athletes had 25(OH)D levels of < 32 ng/mL & 25(OH)D status was not significantly associated with any parameter measured
Forney et al. 2014 [42] Active College Students 39 Physically Active College Students (20 Males, 19 Females) Correlation 25(0H)D Levels of 20.97 ± 1.97 ng/mL (N = 20) or 44.15 ± 2.17 ng/mL (N = 19)- Primary Outcomes: BMI, % Body Fat, Resting Metabolic Rate, Maximal Oxygen Uptake (V02max), Power Output (Watts), and Muscle Strength - Significant positive relationship seen between V02max and 25(OH)D & Significant negative relationship seen between BMI and 25{OH)D
Jastrzebski 2014 [43] Athletes 14 Elite Lightweight Rowers Intervention - RCT 6000 IU/day of Vita min D3 vs Placebo in 25(0H)D sufficient athletes (>30 ng/mL) 8 Weeks Vitamin D vs Placebo: Significant ↑ in V02max (12.1 % and 10.3 %, respectively) and 25(OH)D concentrations by 400 % (~120 ng/mL)