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Table 3 Effect of supplementation on functional measures of muscle damage and fatigue following eccentric exercise

From: The effects PCSO-524®, a patented marine oil lipid and omega-3 PUFA blend derived from the New Zealand green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), on indirect markers of muscle damage and inflammation after muscle damaging exercise in untrained men: a randomized, placebo controlled trial

Variables/ Groups Pre- supplementation Post-supplementation     
  (Baseline) Before muscle damaging exercise 24 h after muscle damaging exercise 48 h after muscle damaging exercise 72 h after muscle damaging exercise 96 h after muscle damaging exercise
DOMS (arbitrary units)
 Green-lipped mussel oil blend 2.3 ± 1.7 2.0 ± 2.0 4.9 ± 2.7¥,# 4.6 ± 2.2¥ 2.7 ± 1.7# 1.8 ± 1.6#
 Placebo 1.9 ± 1.6 1.4 ± 1.5 4.4 ± 2.1¥, # 4.8 ± 1.8¥ 3.9 ± 1.8¥,# 3.0 ± 2.2¥,#
 p-value* 0.700 0.563 0.847 0.441 0.029* 0.037*
Pressure Pain Threshold (% Δ from baseline)
 Green-lipped mussel oil blend - −0.08 ± 0.32% −0.13 ± 0.26% −0.12 ± 0.28% −0.07 ± 0.34% −0.01 ± 0.34%
 Placebo - −0.03 ± 0.35% −0.15 ± 0.27%# −0.10 ± 0.39% −0.07 ± 0.41% 0.01 ± 0.50%
 p-value* - 0.643 0.844 0.824 0.978 0.896
Knee Flexion Range of Motion (degrees)
 Green-lipped mussel oil blend 47.5 ± 6.1 46.7 ± 5.0 47.4 ± 5.2 44.6 ± 5.9# 45.7 ± 5.4 46.7 ± 4.4
 Placebo 45.8 ± 8.4 46.9 ± 9.8 47.3 ± 9.0 43.4 ± 7.1# 44.9 ± 8.5 41.8 ± 5.3¥
 p-value* 0.476 0.939 0.980 0.628 0.760 0.007*
Thigh Girth (swelling) (% Δ from baseline)
 Green-lipped mussel oil blend - 0.01 ± 0.02% 0.02 ± 0.02% 0.01 ± 0.02% 0.01 ± 0.02% 0.02 ± 0.04%
 Placebo - 0.00 ± 0.02% 0.02 ± 0.02% 0.01 ± 0.02% 0.02 ± 0.02% 0.02 ± 0.06%
 p-value* - 0.631 0.970 0.953 0.582 0.971
Maximum Voluntary Isometric torque (Strength) (Nm)
 Green-lipped mussel oil blend 72.8 ± 22.2 82.1 ± 19.7# 76.2 ± 19.8# 78.7 ± 21.5 79.9 ± 20.2 84.6 ± 22.4¥,#
 Placebo 75.4 ± 19.3 82.1 ± 22.4# 74.9 ± 19.4# 74.6 ± 22.5 76.2 ± 20.8 83.9 ± 14.4
 p-value* 0.721 0.843 0.987 0.569 0.608 0.872
%ΔQtw,pot
 Green-lipped mussel oil blend −27.8 ± 26.2 - −30.4 ± 14.3 - - -
 Placebo −23.9 ± 24.0 - −39.5 ± 24.3¥ - - -
 p-value* 0.669 - 0.039 - - -
  1. *, p-value between groups at distinct time points (p < 0.05 denotes statistical significance between groups; p > 0.05 denotes no statistical significance between groups); ¥, significantly different (p < 0.05) to pre- supplementation (baseline) within group; #, significantly different (p < 0.05) from previous time point within group. Pressure pain threshold and thigh girth (swelling) are expressed as % change (Δ) from the pre- supplementation (baseline) value within group, since baseline values were significantly different (p < 0.05) between groups. DOMS, delayed onset muscle soreness; % ΔQtw,pot, % change in potentiated quadriceps twitch force from pre- to post-exercise (cycling time trial). Values expressed as mean ± SD.