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Table 2 Changes in body weight, body composition, and body water

From: Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine supplementation on muscle carnosine, body composition and exercise performance in recreationally active females

  BA (n = 8) BAC (n = 9) CRE (n = 8) PLA (n =7) Time P value
Body weight (kg)
 Baseline 63.16 ± 7.48 59.18 ± 5.42 61.15 ± 5.68 58.60 ± 5.81 60.54 ± 6.10 T = 0.01
 1 Week 63.32 ± 7.30 59.33 ± 5.32 61.38 ± 5.94 59.22 ± 6.07 60.82 ± 6.11 G = 0.50
 4 Weeks 63.60 ± 7.28 60.16 ± 5.02 61.26 ± 5.65 59.44 ± 5.88 61.14 ± 5.91† T × G = 0.49
 Group 63.36 ± 2.14 59.56 ± 2.02 61.26 ± 2.14 59.09 ± 2.29   
Fat mass (kg)
 Baseline 16.49 ± 4.93 14.10 ± 3.27 14.30 ± 4.88 14.76 ± 3.94 14.89 ± 4.19 T = 0.05
 1 Week 15.52 ± 4.30 13.17 ± 2.57 13.86 ± 4.79 13.84 ± 4.07 14.08 ± 3.88† G = 0.50
 4 Weeks 16.59 ± 4.67 12.99 ± 3.01 13.44 ± 3.00 14.02 ± 4.39 14.23 ± 3.88 T × G = 0.57
 Group 16.20 ± 1.38 13.42 ± 1.30 13.89 ± 1.38 14.21 ± 1.47   
Fat free mass (kg)
 Baseline 41.08 ± 4.20 39.77 ± 4.42 41.36 ± 3.33 38.40 ± 3.18 40.19 ± 3.35 T = 0.000
 1 Week 42.05 ± 3.78 40.86 ± 4.65 42.06 ± 3.17 39.86 ± 3.38 41.23 ± 3.76† G = 0.59
 4 Weeks 41.40 ± 4.35 41.72 ± 4.44 42.55 ± 3.85 39.92 ± 3.09 41.45 ± 3.93† T × G = 0.17
 Group 41.51 ± 1.35 40.78 ± 1.27 41.99 ± 1.35 39.40 ± 1.44   
Percent fat (%)
 Baseline 28.23 ± 6.72 26.03 ± 5.25 25.25 ± 6.62 27.51 ± 5.34 26.71 ± 5.84 T = 0.02
 1 Week 26.51 ± 5.08 24.40 ± 4.56 24.34 ± 6.52 25.46 ± 5.23 25.14 ± 5.19† G = 0.62
 4 Weeks 28.25 ± 6.34 23.76 ± 5.14 23.88 ± 4.11 25.60 ± 5.94 25.32 ± 5.48† T × G = 0.45
 Group 27.66 ± 1.88 24.73 ± 1.78 24.49 ± 1.88 26.19 ± 2.02   
Total body water (%)
 Baseline 51.31 ± 4.09 53.79 ± 6.56 48.86 ± 5.48 50.90 ± 4.48 51.30 ± 5.33 T = 0.66
 1 Week 51.27 ± 3.83 52.56 ± 4.22 50.53 ± 3.61 50.01 ± 3.39 51.15 ± 3.72 G = 0.44
 4 Weeks 50.61 ± 3.06 53.33 ± 3.96 51.66 ± 3.66 50.53 ± 3.08 51.59 ± 3.66 T × G = 0.30
 Group 51.07 ± 1.45 53.23 ± 1.35 50.35 ± 1.47 50.48 ± 1.45   
  1. Individual group and time data are presented as means ± SD while time and group effects are presented as means ± SEM. MANOVA analysis on DEXA body composition revealed overall Wilks’ Lambda time (p < 0.001) and group × time (p = 0.57) effects. Univariate ANOVA p-levels from MANOVA analysis are presented for each body composition variable. BA signifies beta-alanine only group; BAC represents beta-alanine and creatine combined group; CRE represents the creatine only group; PLA represents the placebo group; T represents time p-level; G represents group p-level, and T × G represents interaction. † represents p < 0.05 difference from baseline.
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