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Table 3 Strength, muscle architecture and body composition changes

From: Efficacy of phosphatidic acid ingestion on lean body mass, muscle thickness and strength gains in resistance-trained men

Variable Group PRE POST
1-RM Bench Press (kg) PA 122.1 ± 21.6 128.3 ± 21.6
PL 115.2 ± 29.6 119.0 ± 28.6
1-RM Squat (kg) PA 134.5 ± 44.1 151.6 ± 41.1
PL 138.9 ± 32.9 151.8 ± 33.9
Vastus Lateralis Thickness (cm) PA 2.10 ± 0.43 2.41 ± 0.27
PL 1.94 ± 0.41 2.24 ± 0.54
Vastus Lateralis Pennation angle (°) PA 16.49 ± 2.95 18.34 ± 3.09
PL 15.6 ± 3.28 16.7 ± 4.21
Body Mass (kg) PA 86.5 ± 21.2 88.0 ± 18.9
PL 89.4 ± 13.6 89.5 ± 13.4
Body Fat (kg) PA 15.8 ± 15.4 15.9 ± 13.6
PL 17.5 ± 9.4 17.5 ± 9.3
Lean Body Mass (kg) PA 66.2 ± 4.5 67.9 ± 5.6
PL 68.4 ± 11.2 68.5 ± 11.2