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Table 2 Physiological responses to 80-min of Exercise at 75% VO 2 max

From: Natural versus commercial carbohydrate supplementation and endurance running performance

Variable Raisins   Chews   Water  
Heart Rate, beats min-1
 20 min 155.3 ± 14.4   158.0 ± 12.5   153.9 ± 14.9  
 40 min 159.0 ± 12.0   160.5 ± 12.6   156.3 ± 12.6  
 60 min 159.7 ± 12.8   160.6 ± 12.7   158.6 ± 11.8
 80 min 161.2 ± 12.3 161.3 ± 12.1   160.7 ± 9.0
Exercise mean 158.8 ± 12.9   160.1 ± 12.5   157.4 ± 12.1  
RPE (0–10 scale)
 20 min 4.1 ± 1.8   4.0 ± 1.1   4.5 ± 1.5  
 40 min 4.5 ± 1.5   4.8 ± 1.5   5.0 ± 1.3  
 60 min 5.0 ± 1.4 5.1 ± 1.6 5.4 ± 1.3
 80 min 5.5 ± 1.4 †‡ 5.7 ± 1.7 †‡ 5.9 ± 1.5 †‡
Exercise mean 4.8 ± 1.5   4.9 ± 1.5   5.2 ± 1.4  
% energy from CHO
 20 min 72.5 ± 9.1   78.2 ± 4.9 *# 71.3 ± 9.1  
 40 min 68.1 ± 5.5 73.7 ± 5.4 †*# 65.6 ± 9.6
 60 min 69.4 ± 6.2 * 72.9 ± 7.2 †*# 62.7 ± 8.2
 80 min 70.1 ± 7.0 * 72.6 ± 8.0 †* 60.7 ± 7.8 †‡
Exercise mean 70.0 ± 7.0 * 74.4 ± 6.4 *# 65.1 ± 8.7  
% energy from Fat
 20 min 27.5 ± 9.1   21.8 ± 4.9 *# 28.7 ± 9.1  
 40 min 31.9 ± 5.5   26.3 ± 5.4 *# 34.4 ± 9.6  
 60 min 30.6 ± 6.2 * 27.1 ± 7.2 *# 37.3 ± 8.2
 80 min 29.9 ± 7.0 * 27.4 ± 8.0 *# 39.3 ± 7.8
Exercise mean 30.0 ± 7.0 * 25.6 ± 6.4 *# 34.9 ± 8.7  
  1. Values are means ± SD for 11 men.
  2. *, significantly different from water; #, significantly different from raisins;
  3. †, significantly different from 20 min; ‡, significantly different from 40 min
  4. RPE, rate of perceived exertion; CHO, carbohydrate.
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