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Table 7 Fasting serum blood and hormone markers observed over time

From: Effects of diet type and supplementation of glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM on body composition, functional status, and markers of health in women with knee osteoarthritis initiating a resistance-based exercise and weight loss program

Variable 0 Weeks 10 14 Group p-level Time G × T
Blood Lipids & Glucose       
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.71 ± 1.0 1.59 ± 1.0 1.62 ± 1.0 0.91 0.51 0.83
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.61 ± 1.0 5.15 ± 0.8† 5.25 ± 1.2 0.05 0.08q 0.78
LDL (mmol/l) 3.65 ± 0.8 3.23 ± 0.6† 3.34 ± 0.9 0.13 0.04 q 0.51
HDL (mmol/l) 1.39 ± 0.3 1.23 ± 0.2† 1.24 ± 0.3† 0.14 0.02 0.96
Glucose (mmol/l) 5.93 ± 0.8 5.69 ± 0.8 5.52 ± 0.9 0.99 0.08 0.96
Serum Protein and Enzymes       
BUN (mmol/l) 5.09 ± 1.4 4.85 ± 1.4 4.36 ± 1.4† 0.91 0.006 0.44
Creatinine (1/2 mol/l) 72 ± 15 69 ± 13 61 ± 15† 0.66 0.003 0.68
BUN/Creatinine Ratio 17.6 ± 3.8 17.6 ± 3.7 18.0 ± 4.4 0.63 0.55 0.33
Uric Acid (1/2 mol/l) 328 ± 92 300 ± 68† 300 ± 77† 0.49 0.09 0.93
CK (IU/l) 59 ± 36 87 ± 42† 88 ± 27† 0.23 0.001 0.86
ALT (IU/l) 25.5 ± 11 19.7 ± 6† 22.0 ± 10 0.81 0.008q 0.14
AST (IU/l) 20.0 ± 6 20.0 ± 5 21.8 ± 8 0.95 0.17 0.96
GGT (IU/l) 42.8 ± 30 41.7 ± 32 50.9 ± 45 0.66 0.15 0.23
Hormones       
C-Reactive Protein (1/2 mol/l) 4.93 ± 4.3 5.12 ± 4.2 7.12 ± 6.7† 0.84 0.06 0.55
IL-6 (pg/ml) 3.68 ± 3.9 3.54 ± 4.1 3.38 ± 5.0 0.13 0.78 0.16
TNF-α (pg/ml) 0.72 ± 2.9 0.90 ± 3.5 0.96 ± 3.3 0.19 0.71 0.60
Cortisol (nmol/l) 825 ± 827 807 ± 599 846 ± 943 0.75 0.56 0.07
Insulin (pmol/l) 90.7 ± 90 96 ± 104 88 ± 98 0.13 0.58 0.81
Glucose/Insulin Ratio 18.3 ± 20 20.2 ± 26 24.1 ± 29 0.36 0.38 0.67
HOMAIR 3.26 ± 3.5 3.33 ± 4.0 2.69 ± 3.0† 0.07 0.05 0.42
Leptin (1/2 g/l) 185 ± 134 130 ± 86† 134 ± 93† 0.97 0.03 0.51
  1. Data are means ± standard deviations for time main effects. LDL = low density lipoproteins, HDL = high density lipoproteins, BUN = blood urea nitrogen, CK = creatine kinase, ALT = alanine aminotransferase, AST = aspartate aminotranferase, GGT = gamma glutamyltransferase, IL-6 = interleukin 6, TNF-α = tumor necrosis factor alpha, HOMAIR = homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, G = group, T = time, q = quadratic alpha level. † Indicates p < 0.05 difference from baseline.