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Table 1 Characteristic of all smokers in four groups.

From: Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers

  Control
(n = 28)
VC
(n = 30)
Exercise plus VC
(n = 28)
Exercise
(n = 26)
Aged (years) 49.9 ± 9.02
(30-65)
56.1 ± 15.42
(28-82)
46.1 ± 11.35
(28-73)
49.1 ± 15.9
(28-87)
BMI (kg.m-2) 21.05 ± 1.56
(19.45 - 24.45)
22.07 ± 1.53
(18.55-25.71)
23.45 ± 2.23
(20.45-25.25)
22.24 ± 1.37
(20.08-25.71)
Smoking rate (cigarette/day)     
   5-10 cigarettes 18 21 13 12
   11-20 cigarettes 10 9 15 14
Nicotine score 7.09 ± 1.15
(5-9)
7.17 ± 1.76
(5-10)
7.56 ± 1.02
(5-10)
7.00 ± 1.88
(5-10)