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Table 2 Methodological issues in existing protein-athlete investigations

From: Dietary protein safety and resistance exercise: what do we really know?

Higher-protein group Lower-protein group(s) Duration of higher-protein intake Uncontrolled or unanalyzed variables Nationality Reference
Large male bodybuilders (protein 169 ± 13 g/d)1 Smaller, male endurance and skill athletes (protein 99 ± 8 g/d)1 unspecified Prior exercise, body composition, Belgian 19
Large male bodybuilders
(protein 142 ± 75 g/d)2
Smaller, mixed male and female bodybuilders, vegetarians, "normals" (protein 84 ± 35 g/d)2 As little as four months Prior exercise3, body composition, non-protein nutrition info. (diet logs) German 30
  1. 1. Relative protein intake 1.94 ± 0.13 g/kg daily (Higher group) vs. 1.35 ± 0.12 g/kg daily (Lower group) 2. Relative protein intake 1.65 ± 0.87 g/kg daily (Higher group) vs. 1.41 ± g/kg daily (Lower group) 3. Exercise not specified but catabolic events were controlled.