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Table 1 Articles related to gender differences in substrate utilization

From: Gender Differences in Carbohydrate Metabolism and Carbohydrate Loading

Author Subject Population Dietary Hormonal Protocol Exercise Protocol Results
Friedlander, 1998 17 healthy females Glucose was infused during Two pretraining trials (45 and 65% of VO2 peak) and two posttraining trials [same absolute workload (65% of old VO2 peak) and same relative workload (65% of new VO2 peak) 5 days/wk, 1-h duration, 75% VO2peak Glucose use is directly related to exercise intensity; training does reduce total carbohydrate oxidation
Carter, 2001 8 males 17 beta-estradiol at 3 mg/d was administered for 8 days 90 min cycling session Short-term oral 17 beta-estradiol administration had no effect on substrate oxidation during exercise in men.
Roepstorff, 2002 7 males, 7 females; endurance trained None 90 min of bicycle exercise at 58% VO2peak In females, measured substrate oxidation accounted for 99% of the leg oxygen uptake, whereas in males 28% of leg oxygen uptake was unaccounted for in terms of measured oxidized lipid substrates
Galliven, 1997 7 women, 8 women None Study 1: high-intensity exercise at 90% VO2max; Study 2: moderate-intensity exercise at 70% VO2max in the AM and PM in the follicular (days 3–9), midcycle (days 10–16), and luteal (days 18–26) phases of the menstrual cycle No significant in blood glucose levels; metabolic and hormonal responses to short-term, high-intensity exercise can be assessed with equal reliability in the AM and PM and that there are subtle differences in blood glucose responses to moderate-intensity exercise across menstrual cycle phase
Hackney, 1994 9 women None 30-min treadmill run where intensity was increased every 10 min (35%, 60%, and 75% VO2peak); tests performed at midfollicular and the midluteal phases of the menstrual cycle The phase of the menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic women does influence metabolic substrate usage during low- to moderate-intensity submaximal exercise
Horton, 1998 14 men, 13 women None 2 h (40% VO2peak) of cycling and 2 h of postexercise recovery During exercise, women derived proportionally more of the total energy expended from fat oxidation, whereas men derived proportionally more energy from carbohydrate oxidation; Epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were greater during exercise in men than in women
Tarnopolsky, 1995 7 males and 8 females; endurance athletes increase carbohydrate intake to 75% of daily energy intake for a period of 4 days Cycling at 75% VO2peak 60 min Men increased muscle glycogen concentration 41% in response to dietary manipulation and showed an increase in performance time during an 85% VO2 peak trial (45%), whereas the women did not increase glycogen concentration (0%) or performance time (5%); The women oxidized significantly more lipid and less carbohydrate and protein compared with the men during exercise at 75% VO2-peak
Tarnopolsky, 1990 6 males, 6 females; endurance trained None Treadmill running at 65% VO2peak for 90–101 min Males showed greater muscle glycogen utilization (by 25%); during moderate-intensity long-duration exercise, females demonstrate greater lipid utilization and less carbohydrate and protein metabolism than equally trained and nourished males
Mittendorfer, 2002 5 males, 5 females None 90 min of moderate-intensity at 50% VO2 peak on a cycle ergorneter Total fatty acid oxidation was similar in men and women, but the relative contribution of plasma FFA to total fatty acid oxidation was higher in women (76 +/- 5%) than in men (46 +/- 5%)
Tarnopolsky, 2001 6 males, 6 females; endurance trained 3 diets: habitual, high carbohydrate (75% total daily energy), and carbohydrate + extra energy (upward arrow~34% extra daily caloric intake)] for a 4-day period None Total glycogen concentration was higher for the men on the high carbohydrate and carbohydrate + extra energy trials compared with habitual, whereas women increased only on the carbohydrate + extra energy trial compared with habitual
Ruby, 2002 5 males, 6 females None Cycling for 25 min at 70 and 90% of O(2) uptake (VO(2)) at LT (70 and 90% LT No differences between genders in the relative contribution of carbohydrate (CHO) to total energy expenditure; the relative contribution of blood glucose to total CHO oxidation was significantly higher in women