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Table 1 Summary of literature pertaining to protein metabolism response to resistance exercise

From: Nutrient Administration and Resistance Training

AUTHORS/REFERENCE SUBJECTS TYPE OF EXERCISE SAMPLES MAJOR OUTCOMES
Biolo et al. 1995[49] 10 (9 M, 1 F) healthy volunteers (19–52 yrs) NONE - A/V blood samples
- Muscle biopsies
- AA infusion can validly quantify many important aspects of PRO synthesis, breakdown and AA transport.
Biolo et al. 1995[11] 5 M young (24 ± 2 yrs), healthy males - Leg Press (5 × 10 reps @ 75% 1 RM)
- Squat, leg curls/ext. (4 × 8 reps @ 75% 1 RM
- PRO synthesis, PRO breakdown and AA transport were determined at rest and 3 h post-ex. - PRO synthesis and PRO breakdown are increased after resistance exercise
- Post-ex. increase of AA transport may contribute to PRO synthesis
Tipton et al. 1996[17] 7 collegiate female swimmers Four conditions:
- Resting (R)
- Intense swimming (S)
- Resistance ex. (RE)
- Swim + resistance ex. (SRE)
- 5 h testing period
- 4 blood samples at 4 h and 5 h post-ex.
- 2 biopsies at 1 h and 5 h post-ex.
- No difference in PRO breakdown for all conditions
- PRO synthesis increased after SRE vs. R
- Combined SRE increases PRO synthesis above resting levels in female swimmers.
Phillips et al. 1997[12] 8 (4 M, 4 F) untrained individuals - 8 × 8 concentric or eccentric reps @ 80% 1 RM - A/V blood at 120, 180, 210, 240, 260, 280 and 300 min.
- Biopsies were taken at 120, 280 and 300 min.
- Increased synthesis rate at all time points (3 h: 112%, 24 h: 65%, 48 h: 34%).
- Increased breakdown rate at 3 h (31%) and 24 h (18%), but no diff. at 48 h.
- Resistance exercise resulted in increases in protein balance that persisted for up to 48 h and is independent of type of muscle contractions.
Phillips et al. 1999[15] Trained subjects (6) vs. untrained subjects (6) - 10 × 8 eccentric reps @ 120% 1 RM
- One leg exercised while other was control
- Femoral A/V blood samples
- Femoral muscle biopsies
- Exercise increased both PRO synthesis and breakdown
- Training status diminishes the response of PRO synthesis and breakdown
Hasten et al. 2000[24] 7 healthy young (23–32 y) and 7 elder (78–84 y) subjects 2 week weight lifting program (3 × 8–12 reps @ 60–90% 1 RM) 14 h infusion to determine incorporation of protein into vastus lateralis - MHC and mixed protein after training increased in young (88% and 121%) and older (105 and 182%) compared to baseline
- Older people retain capacity to increase MHC
Phillips et al. 2002[19] 19 young (23.7 ± 3.2 yrs), untrained, healthy, male subjects - 8 week RE program (6 d/week)
- During testing, one leg acted as control
- A/V blood samples and muscle biopsies after acute, initial bouts of RE and after 6 weeks of training - RE increases PRO balance in both legs but more so in exercised leg
- Regular training attenuates increase in PRO synthesis
Pitkanen et al. 2003[9] 12 healthy, physically active males - 50 min. bout of lower-body RE
- 3 × 10 reps @ 80% 1 RM w/1–1.5 min. rest
- A/V blood samples were provided throughout entire 5 h protocol
- Biopsies were provided 1 h post-ex. and 3.5 h post-ex.
- Protein net balance is negative and similar between groups
- RES induces an increase in MPS and breakdown at 195 min. but not by 60 min. post-ex.
Sheffield-Moore et al. 2004[14] - 6 older M
(69 ± 1 yrs)
- 6 younger M (29 ± 2 yrs)
- 45 min. treadmill walking @ ~40% peak VO2 - Femoral biopsies and A/V blood samples at -10, 60 and 180 min. post-ex. - Protein synthesis and breakdown increased in both groups after exercise
- Older individuals had increased protein breakdown compared to younger individuals
Durham et al. 2004[64] 7 (5 M, 2 F) were studied at rest and after exercise - Leg press (8 × 10 reps @ 75% 1 RM) and Leg ext. (8 × 8 reps @ 80% 1 RM) - Femoral A/V blood and biopsies were obtained at rest and immediately after exercise. - Lower body RE increases glucose uptake and lactate release
- PRO synthesis is not elevated during a bout of RE