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Table 2 Blood biochemistries pre-performance tests

From: The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

Biomarkers BL COK ALM
Antioxidant status
  MDA (μmol/L) 3.9 ± 0.15 3.2 ± 0.5 3.2 ± 0.3
  XOD (U/L) 13.3 ± 0.4 13.1 ± 0.9 12.4 ± 1.0
  TAOC (U/ml) 16.1 ± 0.5 12.8 ± 1.0* 16.3 ± 0.9#
  GPx (U/ml) 0.41 ± 0.01 0.45 ± 0.05 0.43 ± 0.05
  SOD (U/ml) 58.7 ± 1.4 61.2 ± 1.4 59.5 ± 1.4
  VE (μmol/L) 19.8 ± 1.8 25.6 ± 1.7 28.7 ± 2.5*
Training, recovery and oxygen-carrying capacity
  CK (U/L) 224.2 ± 32.9 354.7 ± 62.9 288.3 ± 81.1
  BUN (mmol/L) 6.5 ± 0.5 7.3 ± 0. 7 6.6 ± 0.6
  Hb (g/L) 136.6 ± 2.5 143.2 ± 3.7 145.7 ± 2.7*
Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism production
  BG (mmol/L) 5.6 ± 0.2 5.3 ± 0.3 5.4 ± 0.2
  PA (mmol/L) 0.42 ± 0.05 0.44 ± 0.07 0.44 ± 0.07
  FFA (mmol/L) 0.22 ± 0.04 0.16 ± 0.03 0.11 ± 0.01*
Metabolism-regulating factors
  Arginine (mmol/L) 0.073 ± 0.005 0.089 ± 0.011 0.113 ± 0.031
  NO (μmol/L) 99.6 ± 10.6 113.1 ± 15.3 136.0 ± 18.1
  Ins (μIU/ml) 5.5 ± 0.9 5.3 ± 1.6 9.4 ± 2.3
  Cor (mmol/L) 20.3 ± 0.9 22.3 ± 2.3 22.0 ± 1.7
  1. MDA, malondialdehyde (μmol/L), XOD, xanthine oxidase (U/L), TAOC, total antioxidant capacity (U/ml), GPx, glutathione peroxidise (U/ml), SOD, superoxide dismutase (U/ml), VE, vitamine E (μmol/L), CK, creatine kinase (U/ml), BUN (blood urea nitrogen (mmol/L), Hb, haemoglubin (g/L), BG, blood glucose (mmol/L), PA, pyruvic acid (mmol/L), FFA, free fatty acid (mmol/L), NO, nitric oxide (μmol/L), Ins, insulin (μIU/ml), Cor, cortisol (mmol/L).
  2. *significantly different from BL at P < 0.05.
  3. #significantly different from COK at P < 0.05.