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Table 1 HMB effects on indices of skeletal muscle damage and breakdown

From: International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)

Experiment Subjects Protocol Diet control Duration/dose Additional supplements Timing Damage indices Outcome
Nissen 1996 [7] Untrained, college-aged males Progressive Free Weights Yes 3 weeks, 1.5 or 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative to training CK, LDH, 3-MH With HMB-Ca CK, LDH, and 3-MH all decreased in a dose dependent manner with 20–60 % declines in CK and LDH and 20 % declines in 3-MH, the marker of protein breakdown
Jowko 2001 [10] Active, college-aged males Progressive Free Weights No 3 weeks, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca 20 grams creatine per day for 7 days followed by 10 grams per day for 14 days 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative to training CK and Urine and Plasma Urea 26-46 % decrease in serum and urine urea nitrogen with HMB-Ca and HMB-Ca lowered CK by 189 %
Kreider 1999 [15] NCAA Football Players Instructed to not change current training Regimen No 28 days, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative to training CK No Effect
Paddon-Jones 2001 [16] Untrained college-aged males 1 isokinetic bout of exercise for elbow flexors No 6 days prior to bout, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative to training CK, Soreness, Arm girth, Strength No Effect
Wilson 2009 [17] Untrained college-aged males 1 isokinetic, eccentric bout for knee extensors and flexors Yes 3 grams HMB-Ca No 60 minutes pre vs. Immediately post exercise CK, LDH, Soreness Pre Exercise HMB-Ca: Prevented the rise in LDH and tended to decrease soreness. Post exercise HMB-Ca, No effects suggesting a possible effect of dosage timing on outcomes.
Kreider 2000 [18] NCAA Football Players Offseason Strength and Conditioning Program No 3 grams HMB-Ca No 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative to training CK, LDH No Effect
Knitter 2000 [11] Trained runners 20–50 yrs of age who ran a minimum of , 48 km per week 20 km run No 6 weeks, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative to training CK HMB-Ca decreased serum CK by approximately 50 %
Hoffman 2004 [19] NCAA Football players Football camp No 10 days, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative to training CK, soreness No Effect
Panton et al. 2000 [20] Men and women, divided into untrained and resistance trained (> 6 months), 20–40 yrs of age Monitored 4 wk high intensity progressive resistance training No 4 weeks, 3 grams per day HMB-Ca No 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative to training CK CK increased 16 and 46 % in men and women, respectively, in the placebo group. In the HMB group CK increased by 3 % and decreased by 12 % in men and women, respectively
Van Someran 2005 [21] Untrained college-aged males Eccentric bout of free weight exercise for elbow flexors No 14 days, 3 grams per day 0.3 g alpha-ketoisocaproic acid per day 1 gram with each of 3 meals, No timing relative to training CK, Soreness Completely prevented exercise induced rise in CK, and blunted the increase in soreness