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Table 1 Post-exercise nutrition and muscle hypertrophy

From: Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?

Study Subjects Supplementation Protein matched with Control? Measurement instrument Training protocol Results
Esmarck et al. [69] 13 untrained elderly males 10 g milk/soy protein combo consumed either immediately or 2 hours after exercise Yes MRI and muscle biopsy Progressive resistance training consisting of multiple sets of lat pulldown, leg press and knee extension performed 3 days/wk for 12 wk Significant increase in muscle CSA with immediate vs. delayed supplementation
Cribb and Hayes [70] 23 young recreational male bodybuilders 1 g/kg of a supplement containing 40 g whey isolate, 43 g glucose, and 7 g creatine monohydrate consumed either immediately before and after exercise or in the early morning and late evening Yes DXA and muscle biopsy Progressive resistance training consisting of exercises for the major muscle groups performed 3 days/wk for 10 wks Significant increases in lean body mass and muscle CSA of type II fibers in immediate vs. delayed supplementation
Willoughby et al. [71] 19 untrained young males 20 g protein or 20 g dextrose consumed 1 hour before and after exercise No Hydrostatic weighing, muscle biopsy, surface measurements Progressive resistance training consisting of 3 sets of 6–8 repetitions for all the major muscles performed 4 days/wk for 10 wks Significant increase in total body mass, fat-free mass, and thigh mass with protein vs. carb supplementation
Hulmi et al. [72] 31 untrained young males 15 g whey isolate or placebo consumed immediately before and after exercise No MRI, muscle biopsy Progressive, periodized total body resistance training consisting of 2–5 sets of 5–20 repetitions performed 2 days/wk for 21 wks. Significant increase in CSA of the vastus lateralis but not of the other quadriceps muscles in supplemented group versus placebo.
Verdijk et al. [73] 28 untrained elderly males 10 g casein hydrolysate or placebo consumed immediately before and after exercise No DXA, CT, and muscle biopsy Progressive resistance training consisting of multiple sets of leg press and knee extension performed 3 days/wk for 12 wks No significant differences in muscle CSA between groups
Hoffman et al. [74] 33 well-trained young males Supplement containing 42 g protein (milk/collagen blend) and 2 g carbohydrate consumed either immediately before and after exercise or in the early morning and late evening Yes DXA Progressive resistance training consisting of 3–4 sets of 6–10 repetitions of multiple exercises for the entire body peformed 4 days/wk for 10 weeks. No significant differences in total body mass or lean body mass between groups.
Erskine et al. [75] 33 untrained young males 20 g high quality protein or placebo consumed immediately before and after exercise No MRI 4-6 sets of elbow flexion performed 3 days/wk for 12 weeks No significant differences in muscle CSA between groups