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Table 7 Cellular damage biomarkers, immunological and inflammatory parameters before and at the end of Ramadan, M ± SD

From: Effect of fed- versus fasted state resistance training during Ramadan on body composition and selected metabolic parameters in bodybuilders

Group Ramadan effect Group effect Ramadan × group effect
F(1,14) P-value η p 2 F(1,14) P-value η p 2 F(1,14) P-value η p 2
CK (IU•l-1) FAST 310 ± 83 300 ± 94 0.26 0.62 0.01 0.17 0.69 0.01 1.05 0.32 0.06
[CV = 4.7%] a FED 305.5 ± 81.71 336 ± 91
LDH (IU•l-1) FAST 283 ± 50 290.5 ± 60.2 0.01 0.91 0 0.2 0.66 0.01 1.05 0.32 0.06
[CV = 4.5%] FED 277 ± 64 271 ± 68
AST (IU•l-1) FAST 26 ± 4. 28 ± 3 0.18 0.69 0.01 0.28 0.6 0.002 0.1 0.75 0.002
[CV = 4.8%] FED 24 ± 5 27 ± 3
ALT (IU•l-1) FAST 20 ± 3 23 ± 5 0.42 0.53 0.002 0.18 0.69 0.001 1.58 0.56 0.003
[CV = 4.3%] FED 22.5 ± 4.31 23 ± 4
PA (IU•l-1) FAST 128 ± 41 135 ± 34 1.69 0.21 0.1 0.13 0.91 0 0.06 0.81 0.003
[CV = 4%] FED 124 ± 39 134 ± 27
γ-GT (IU•l-1) FAST 17 ± 3 19 ± 3 2.05 0.17 0.12 2.75 0.12 0.16 0.38 0.55 0.03
[CV = 3.8%] FED 20 ± 4 21 ± 3
Total leucocytes (109•l-1) FAST 6.41 ± 1.03 6.59 ± 1.18 1.37 0.26 0.02 0.12 0.73 0.04 0.04 0.84 0.004
[CV < 2%] FED 6.8 ± 0.53 6.86 ± 0.87
Neutrophils (109•l-1) FAST 3.42 ± 0.61 3.58 ± 0.78 0.01 0.89 0.001 1.97 0.11 0.01 1.18 0.29 0.003
[CV < 2%] FED 3.53 ± 0.46 3.4 ± 0.51
Lymphocytes (109•l-1) FAST 2.59 ± 0.58 2.67 ± 0.52 1.8 13 0.02 0.17 0.69 0..04 1.97 0.11 0.07
[CV < 2%] FED 2.93 ± 0.2 3.14 ± 0.28
Monocytes (109•l-1) FAST 0.31 ± 0.16 0.28 ± 0.16 0.78 0.39 0.06 0.88 0.36 0.04 0.14 0.71 0.008
[CV < 2%] FED 0.29 ± 0.11 0.22 ± 0.13
C-reactive protein (mg•l-1) FAST 6.2 ± 0.9 6.1 ± 0.7 0.19 0.67 0.01 0.39 0.54 0.02 0.05 0.82 0.003
[CV = 4.5%] FED 6.4 ± 0.9 6.3 ± 0.8          
  1. Note: FAST = subjects training in a fasted state; FED = subjects training in a fed state; a = inter-assay coefficient of variance. CK = Creatine kinase, LDH = lactatedehydrogenase, ALT = alanine aminotransferase, AST = aspartate aminotransferase, AP = alkaline phosphatase, γ-GT = γ-glutamyl transferase. Before Ramadan (Bef-R) = 2 days before beginning the fast; end of Ramadan (End-R) = 29 days after beginning the fast.