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Table 6 Serum lipid and glucose concentrations before and at the end of Ramadan, M ± SD

From: Effect of fed- versus fasted state resistance training during Ramadan on body composition and selected metabolic parameters in bodybuilders

Group Ramadan effect Group effect Ramadan × group effect
F(1,14) P-value η p 2 F(1,14) P-value η p 2 F(1,14) P-value η p 2
TG (mmol•l-1) FAST 0.73 ± 0.16 0.75 ± 0.15 1.37 0.26 0.08 0.02 0.89 0.001 0.29 0.59 0.02
[CV = 2.7%] a FED 0.74 ± 0.11 0.75 ± 0.11
TC (mmol•l-1) FAST 3.82 ± 0.34 3.87 ± 0.35 0.006 0.94 0 0.45 0.51 0.03 0.023 0.2 0.11
[CV = 3%] FED 3.98 ± 0.34 3.93 ± 0.35
HDL-C (mmol•l-1) FAST 1.11 ± 0.26 1.24 ± 0.20* 23.87 <0.001 0.62 0.1 0.75 0.01 0.02 0.9 0.01
[CV = 3.1%] FED 1.15 ± 0.16 1.26 ± 0.18*
LDL-C (mmol•l-1) FAST 2.37 ± 0.3 2.29 ± 0.26 0.05 0.82 0.003 1.92 0.19 0.12 0.07 0.08 0.19
FED 2.49 ± 0.37 2.6 ± 0.38
TC: HDL-C FAST 3.58 ± 0.82 3.18 ± 0.44 17.52 <0.001 0.55 0.02 0.89 0 0.02 0.9 0.001
FED 3.53 ± 0.59 3.15 ± 0.43
LDL-C: HDL-C FAST 2.44 ± 0.79 2.05 ± 0.43 9.06 0.009 0.39 0.08 0.78 0.01 1.9 0.19 0.11
FED 2.39 ± 0.57 2.34 ± 0.41
Glucose (mmol•l-1) FAST 4.97 ± 0.53 4.88 ± 0.58 1.71 0.21 0.1 0.78 0.39 0.05 0.044 0.83 0.03
[CV = 2.1%] FED 4.77 ± 0.37 4.66 ± 0.47          
  1. Significantly different from before Ramadan: * (P < 0.05). Note: FAST = subjects training in a fasted state; FED = subjects training in a fed state; a = inter-assay coefficient of variance. TG = triglycerides; TC = total cholesterol; HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Before Ramadan (Bef-R) = 2 days before beginning the fast; end of Ramadan (End-R) = 29 days after beginning the fast.