In this study, we propose that if terrestrial organisms evolved from deep ocean , supply of deep ocean mineral water (DOM) to humans may replenish loss of molecular complexity associated with evolutionary sea-to-land migration, and optimizes the biological fitness. Here, we provide evidence that desalinated DOM, taken from 662 meters below sea-level, can substantially accelerate recovery from physical fatigue in aerobic power and enhance lower-body muscle power after a prolonged bout of dehydrating exercise. This improvement appears to be associated with a complete elimination of exercise-induced muscle damage, suggesting that DOM contains components, which can complement and enhance the molecular and cellular complexity of humans to minimize entropic stress produced during prolonged physical activity in the heat.
The key components of DOM contributing to the observed ergogenic benefits are not exactly known. In the study, the DOM taken from the west rim of the Pacific Ocean is characterized by enriched contents of boron, magnesium, lithium, and rubidium. In DOM the content of boron (1.59 mg/L), which is now considered an essential nutrient for humans, is 5–10 fold that found in human serum (~0.2-0.3 mg/L) . Boron is known to attenuate exercise-induced rise in plasma lactate in animals  and to prevent magnesium loss in humans . Serum magnesium concentration and dietary magnesium intake are known correlates of muscle strength [18, 19]. Therefore, the minerals and trace elements in DOM may work cooperatively to sustain normal human performance.
The observed effect of DOM on accelerating fatigue recovery is closely associated with the eradication of exercise-induced muscle damage [20, 21]. Elevation of these muscle damage markers normally occurs in parallel with increased oxidative damage . Our results on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) fits well with those on markers of muscle damage (P < 0.05). Higher content of magnesium, lithium, and rubidium in DOM may be associated with strengthened antioxidant capability against oxidative stress during post-exercise recovery [23–25]. In animals, lack of magnesium in their diet leads to increased free radical production , while magnesium supplementation eliminates free radical production induced by ischemia reperfusion  and alcohol drinking . Lithium can increase the free radical scavenging capability in animals  and thus help to increase the resilience of a cell against destructive free radical attack .
One significant feature of DOM is the enriched rubidium content compared to fresh water. Rubidium concentration increases considerably in seawater as the depth of the ocean approaches 450 meters. The concentration of this trace element in human plasma ranges from 40–310 μg/L , about 2.5-20 fold higher than that found in DOM. However, rubidium has a high retention rate in the human body, taking 39-134 days for 50% of infused rubidium to be excreted into urine and feces . Compared to rats fed rubidium, rats fed a rubidium-free diet exhibit higher urea nitrogen in plasma , suggesting that rubidium is essential to preserve biological integrity against daily entropic stress. The rubidium concentration in the human brain decreases with age , and supplementation of rubidium chloride has been found to increase spontaneous physical activity in animals . Additions of lithium and rubidium into seawater have been shown to increase frequency of movement in jellyfish . The recommended dietary allowance for rubidium has not yet been defined for humans. Rubidium demonstrates interchangeability with potassium in a variety of biological systems meaning that rubidium deficiency can be compensated by supplementation of potassium in many species . Compared to potassium, rubidium may be an evolutionary preferred nutritive source for animals.
The oceans are the largest water reservoirs on earth, which consists of a great diversity of water-soluble chemical components, feeding a vast quantity of marine organisms [8, 36]. However, nutrients in the clear ocean surface water have most likely been exhausted by a high rate of photosynthesis [8, 37]. Compared to the surface layer of the oceans, DOM may exert greater metabolic benefit, evidenced by its superior action on eliminating oxidative stress and preventing vascular damage in terrestrial animals challenged with a high cholesterol diet . This observation implies that the water-soluble components unique to (or enriched in) DOM may play an important role in supporting metabolic functions of terrestrial animals when they are faced with a various physiological and metabolic challenges.
The limitation of the study is the loci-specific distribution of minerals and trace elements in the ocean, thus preventing us from being able to generalize that DOM from all sites of the world can confer the same ergogenic benefits as presented. Geographic specificity is suggested by a report documenting relatively lower silver, cobalt and nickel concentrations in the North Atlantic Ocean than the other major oceans . Furthermore, the profile of minerals and trace elements is also varied with the depth of the ocean [37, 39], and hydrothermal activity and diffusion from bottom sediments can also influence the composition of minerals and trace elements in the ocean waters . Experiments using Antarctic Ocean waters have also suggested that not all deep ocean water will provide comparable biogenic benefits .
On the application side, we confirm the benefit of acute DOM supplementation on decreasing physical fatigue with elimination of post-exercise oxidative damage. However, it has been reported a diminished training effect when antioxidant was supplemented to trained men , suggesting that free radicals may play a role for training adaptation. Thus, whether or not decreasing oxidative stress by DOM supplementation may confer negative effects on exercise training adaptation demands more investigation.